Marx developed two different modes of class analysis. In the Communist Manifesto and Capital, Marx stressed the primacy of class and argued for the eradication of non-class relations through class struggles. However, in the Eighteenth Brumaire, he focused on the interaction between class and non-class relations. Using the interaction mode of class analysis, this paper examines how five radical social theories(social feminism, analytical Marxism, world-sys-tems theory, Eco-Marxism,and historical Marxism)have incorporated such new issues as gender, contradictory locations, status group, environment, and social movements into class analysis. After linking with radical social theories, class analyses are now at the forefront of explaining patriarchy and gender inequalities, the middle class‘ expansion, national struggles at the peripheries, environmental problems, and new social movements.
Based on a 1996 sampling survey data(n = 754)collected in Wuhan, Hubei, PRC, this paper explores people‘s strata consciousness in urban China during the transformation era. Findings from statistical analysis suggest that most urban residents have clear perception of social stratification. Stratification in urban society is mainly perceived as an economic as well as a power hierarchy, while occupation is not considered as the core indicator of stratification as it is in some west societies. Contemporary urban China is socially neither a status society based on family background nor “class society“of Marx‘s definition. It is also found that urban residents in Wuhan tend to identify with middle-lower strata on economic dimension, with middie-upper strata on prestige dimension, and with lower-bottom strata on power dimension, which suggest“an inclination of social-prestige climbing“ on the one hand and “a sense of relative deprivation of power“ on the other. While the identifications on the three dimensions are highly correlated, economic status indentification is most important to people‘s identification of their overall socio-economic status.
Basing on a comparison between Marx and Weber on social stratification, the author provides an empirical study on Shanghai social strata with a multiple stratification analysis. The work focuses on a framework of occupational status including such dimensions as power, wealth and status position and so on. The author reveals that there are five great social strata with hierarchy in Shanghai : the top group composed mainly of leading cadres, private enterprisers and agents of foreignbusiness;the second group composed of clerks in all sorts of institute; the third group composed of professionals ; the forth one with trade and business persons as main body ; the last one composed of workers, farmers and attendants. In respect of social interaction, social network and life style, there are substantial differences among these occupation groups. Social mobility within them is basically some kind of structural mobility. The mechanism of social resource allocation is firstly through power, then capital and labor. The author also deals with the matter of Chinese middle class and civil society.
Based on fieldwork in Yang Village in eastern Fujian province, this paper utilizes the concept of symbolic capital from Pierre Bourdieu to reflect upon Prasenjit Duara‘ s thesis known as “cultural nexus of power“. The material under discussion is concerned with social changes at the level of grassroots societies in the Republican period. The central argument to be made is that the reproduction of symbolic capital was fundamentally redefined and transformed by misunderstanding of cultural issues on the part of local elite
The author tries to divide the rural migration into two categories--the first generation and the second one in terms of their different age, education level and agricultural experience. Then he discusses the influences of these variables on the differences of social identities of the second generation of rural migration from the first one and the influences of the differences on their future social positions and behaviors in rural and urban areas. The conclusion of the essay is that the social identities of the second rural migration tend to become more and more indefinite than the ones of the first generation of rural migration. So it is also more difficult to come back to live in the rural areas for the second generation of rural migration than the first one in future. This is a big challenge to the social stability in China.
The author examined a new model of the trusteeship of the public service equipment in community through the Luoshan Civil Community Pudong, Shanghai,which is a systematical experiment--put the public service equipment owned by governments under the trusteeship of NGO,planned by the Social Development Bureau of Shanghai Pudongxinqu District and operated by the Shanghai Young Men‘ s Christian Association. The aim of the model is through the coorporation between the government and the NGO to provide communities with public service products and carry out industrial management from the object, quality, price to cost of public service by the way of simulated market. The author believes that cultivating the model is a research and test process of the community public service policy. It‘ s very important for researching community construction and increasing the supply of public service.
Under the background of the four periods of the world modernization history, this thesis makes a tentative and preliminary investigations of all kinds of developing opportunities in China‘s social modernization history. Furthermore, the thesis explores the varied reasons for China‘ s loss of developing social modernization. In author‘ s opinion, China faced different developing opportunities in each period of the world modernization history. But, China had missed these opportunities because of aggression by the First-comers and lack of developing factors. These reasons have led China to fall behind the First-comers till now. This exploration tells us that it is the Communist Party of China:the Party with modernity to lead Chinese people to the fight way to the modernization. This study will surely draw lessons from history in building up socialist modernization with Chinese characteristics.
With the differentiation and realignment of the Social Strata of China, an intermediate stratum is quietly rising at the turn of the century. The intermediate stratum‘ s scale of population and its social influence are constantly expanding. It has such a deep influence on the course of China‘ s modernization that becomes a social phenomenon which must be faced up to at present and hereafter a period. This article makes several analyses on the social features of China‘ s intermediate stratum and some problems in the rising course of intermediate stratum.
Since the early 1970s, multiculturalism has been adopted as influential state policy by Canada, Australia and some other Western countries in succession. After giving a critical review concerning the manifest and latent functions of the multiculturalism, the author points out that the multiculturalism cannot be simply regarded as a positive and progressive policy that has been highly appreciated by quite a few Chinese scholars. It should be noted that one of the important implications of the policy is that the weak groups( immigrants are included)are able to enjoy their rights only because of the favor bestowed by the group in power. Therefore, on the one hand, multiculturalism does show an important advantage because it tends to promote all ethnic communities as equals ; on the other hand, a deep racism cannot be ignored because the social consequence of the policy will absolutely institutionalize the separatism by stressing the “unchangeable racial identity“.
The completion of the Single Market and the introduction of the single currency are transforming Europe from a group of separate economies into an integrated economic entity. This new economic framework will make the interplay between social and economic policy even more important. This paper attempts to provide some observations and analyses of the changing social policy in EU member states with the European integration process. What kind of changes have emerged and will emerge in Nordic welfare model due to the start of the single currency Euro? Is there any potential possibility that the legitimacy of the welfare state will be challenged essentially? In which way the social security systems in EU member states try to cope with the fiscal problems and are there any trends towards a common European way of financing? Questions like these are confronted in this essay.