After an introduction to the core of theoretical study of sociology, the foundation of theoretical construction and the tradition as well as the split of theoretical methodology, the article, based upon the research on the empirical facts of the relationship between modem individuals and society, makes an exploration of the significance concerning sociological theory and its methodology, and launches an analysis about the position of the issue in regard to the relationship between individuals and society in sociological knowledge system. It points out that this issue not only accounts for the historical origination of sociological theoretical tradition but also implies the future orientation of contemporary sociological theory, explaining that the futher pursuit of the issue is of great realistic importance in creating new theories and wider thinking scope for contemporary Chinese sociology.
“Well-to-do society“ is a typical Chinese theory. In this article the author divides the development of China‘s well-off ideal into four stages, as following:from the Spring and Autumn Period to the Warring States Period, from the Qin Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty, from the Song Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty, and the modern times. Then the author puts forward their respective characteristics: peacefulness and stability, protecting people and self-protecting, equalitarianism and harmony, socialism and modernization, and therefore indicates the enormous and plentiful differences in all stages.
Through analyzing the questionnaire data of 383 migrants in Nanjing conducted in 2002, the thesis deals with some features of social support networks of the migrants. The authors point out that the size of the migrants‘ social support network is smaller, the density of it is higher, the homophily of it is stronger, the heterogeneity of it is weaker, and the strength of strong-ties of it is more prominent, comparing with that of the citizens‘ and the villgers‘.
In contemporary China, farmers defend their rights by engaging in “everyday forms of resistance“, “policy-based resistance“, and most recently, “struggle by law“. Among them, “struggle by law“ demonstrates higher level of political activism and is typically organized. The fact that farmers have started to move from lodging complaints and seeking favorable outside intervention to relying on their own organization in order to defend their rights, the auther thinks, has important implications for political reforms and development in rural China.
This research is an empirical inquiry about the dynamics of organizational maintenance of social associations that have not voluntary, but compulsory membership. Such an intriguing problem is analyzed by a case study on Association of Self-employed Laborers of Haidian District of Beijing (ASEL). In this article, the author argues that the exchange of power and service between the ASELHD and its members can be served as the intemal dynamics of organizational development. By putting the exchange relations in the context of macro-structure and micro-process, the author concentrates on the model of exchange relations between association and its members with the aim to see how these relation models affect the maintenance and development of ASELHD.
Using the data from a multi-site survey called “The Willingness and Attitudes of Ordinary Urban Chinese Citizen toward Social Donation“, which was part of the research project “Performance Evaluation and Institutional Innovation of China‘ s Social Donation System“, this article firstly came to deal with several critical issues with regard to the attitudinal and behavioral orientations of the general urban population toward social donation : the degree of discretionary power of resource allocation with that they endowed the social donation agency ; the expectations and demands they bore on the social donation agency; the two main suggestions that they gave to the social donation agency of the direction of it‘s credibility-construction; and the micro-mechanisms that might promote potential donors to exert their donation. Secondly, this article examined the social cognitive statuses of ordinary urban citizens toward various social philanthropic and voluntary activities and organizations. Thirdly, after synthesized a new index called “susceptibility of certain demographic subgroups toward future social donation“, this article identified several important determinants which would mostly influence ordinary urban citizen‘s potential willingness to donate based on two regression modals: that is, the more educated, the more well-done in their socio-economic situation, the more willingly of the subgroup to donate
This ethnographic story is an account of what we heard and experienced during the fieldwork in 2001 in a Zhuang village in the mountainous region of southwest China. It aims to decipher the formation of local economy in the post-reform China through focusing on the state economic intervention and villagers‘ negotiation, accommodation and resistance in shaping the local economic development. We also intends to argue that most current development projects by the local government under the influences of developmentalism, are not able to meet the needs of local community ; but cause the re-emergence of rural poverty.
The NGO is a new kind of organization appeared in China along with the reform, they exist outside of the system and their development depend on two factors: system and social resource. The institute controls the distribution method of resource and restricts the behavior of organization by laws. It is the change of system and the free resource released that make the existence of Chinese NGOs possible. But the old system and those restrictive laws hold them back from further development. Social resource, including legitimacy, funds, human resource, government support, social cooperation and acceptance, is essential to NGOs. Chinese NGOs have to face the problem of their lack of resource and ability. Because they have single way to obtain resource and they cannot receive enough support from the government and society. In this paper, it will try to analyze the affection and restraint that the two factors bring to Chinese NGOs, through the case of PanYu External Workers Service Firm in Guangdong.
The article firstly shows that the anti-poverty industry had made few contributions to the dramatic reduction of poverty during the period from the early 1980s to the early 1990s in China through examining the statistical figures concerned. The article secondly argues that the strategic shift of the antipoverty policy from “reducing massive poverty“ to targeting the poorest of poor is to normalize poor population management. The policy will induce rather than reduce more poverty. The article lastly explores an alternative of “development“ through strengthening the grassroots communities and helping them to reconstruct their life world.
There is a debate between two different perspectives to understand the issue: “why people should obey rules“. One is the instrumental perspective that emphasizes benefits and costs, and the other is the normative perspective arguing that morality and norms are more important. To test and to surpass both arguments from the two sides, this paper discusses the rule obeisance in virtual community, which is a new and concrete situation. On basis of statistic analysis of collected quantitative data, the paper concludes that in virtual community, normative factors contribute more than instrumental factors to the rule obeisance. This conclusion highlights the importance of morality in Chinese society and may lead to more interesting research.