This is a study of cooperative medical schemes (CMSs) operating in rural China from the perspective of institutional embeddedness. As a kind of community-based health micro-insurance scheme,CMSs often suffer from financial vulnerability due to its small scale of risk pooling. CMSs operated relatively successfully during the pre-reform era as the institutional environment in which they were embedded were favorable. Under theplanned economy and tough social control, adverse selection and embedded were favorable. Under the planned economy and tough social control, adverse selection and provider-induced over-provision of healtheare were non-existent. During the market transition, CMSs encounter with so severe problem of adverse selection that they lose attractiveness to most of rural residents,and they are further sabotaged by bad governance. At the same time, healthcare providers,driven by marketization, have no longer had incentive to curtail cost increase. Chinese CMSs are at a crossroad, either developing towards a state-run voluntary health insurance scheme or maintaining its community - based nature but receiving strong support from the government.
Based on the analysis of the survey data obtained in 1997, 1999 and 2000 about rural migrants of the Three Gorges, the paper describes the adaptation situation of the migrants in the place of resettlement, it shows that the adaptation in everyday life is better than the aspect of labor, and the latter is better than the mentality. By analyzing the influence factors on adaptation of the rural migrants of the Three Gorges, the paper point out that the types of resettlement and the care of local government are more important to the adaptation of the migrants in the early time of resettlement. The manner of labor, the difference of custom and public security will become the main factors to the adaptation of the rural migrants as the time goes on. The changes on type of resettlement since 1999 will bring some other problems on the adaptation of the rural migrants.
The self-practice in a modern society--that is, how to fulfill “self”, “personality” or “individuality”--not only has to face the oppression and control of the outside, objective world, but also has to face subjective, spiritual emptiness and lacking support after the death of religion. This is a common dilemma that both Simmel and Weber faced. The difference between Simmel and Weber lies in that Simmel, via his life philosophy, lodged the values that led individuals in modern society to holding their self-practice and fulfillment of their unique characteristics in their innovative and living lives of essence. In contrast, Weber hoped, in a sense, to revive puritans‘ conception of “vocation” so as to lead individuals to dedicate themselves to a particular undertaking to fulfill their “personality”.
This article advances a theoretical frame to investigate the form and evolution of cluster and network. Based on two dimensions-mode of production organization and the amount of social capital,four different forms of cluster and network are put forward. Then the evolution of above-mentioned forms and decisive factors behind are discussed. Finally, the frame is used to examine the condition and developing tendency of the Special Town of Guang Dong province, PRC.
Face (mianzi) and favor ( renqing ) used to be researched in a descriptive level or from the perspective of western sociological theories. This paper argues that they actually work in their own ways with their hypothesis, meaning and functions in Chinese society. Chinese people assume that society should construct in reasonableness ( qingli ), in which favor is a kind of long reciprocity without counting or estimating while face refers to one‘s important position in other‘s mind in his or her community. The people know that social resources and authority would transmit from the magnates to them if face and favor could be connected with power.
One of the most striking features of contemporary culture is the growing tendency to visualize everything that is so-called visual turn. From sociological perspective the essay probes the relationship between visual culture and consumer society. The research result clearly indicates that visual culture is a product of consumer society.
This article traces the development of cultural sociology by reviewing two scholarly debates: one is the conceptual definitions on culture, and the other is about the relationship between culture and structure. The author makes two contributions to these debates. The first is to classify various scholarly definitions of culture into four schools, namely, subjective culture, structural culture, dramaturgic culture, and institutional culture. The author draws on conceptual distinctions among these schools and argues that their interrelationships and interdependence imply the underlying mechanism whereby society and culture survive and develop from one generation to the next. The second is to offer a focused analysis of three sociological stands on the relationship between culture survive and develop from one generation to the next. The second is to offer a focused analysis of three sociological stands on the relationship between culture and structure: macro-structural culturalism, structural cuhuralism, and culturalism. The author argues that culture retains its relative autonmy in society, and that cultural autonomy depends on social structure, human action, particular cultural domains, and cuhure-relevant structural fields.
Basing on a comparison of social survey data came from the studies of social classes and stratification both in Korea and China, the article analysis the differences in social class structure and class consciousness between the two countries, and points out that social structure in Korea is more advanced than China in the modernization orientation as well as the class consciousness of its social members is more suite to their own objective class positions. Chinese society is just in transformation period and still lacks of a common discourse for expressing class member‘s consciousness. In a laterdeveloped country the most important factor of class formation and class consciousness is the choice of development strategy by the guiding states.