This paper analyzes the ego-centered social network composition of urban dwellers in China from a social class perspective. A random sample (n = 1004 )questionnaire survey was conducted in the city areas of Beijing in the summer of 2000. The discussion name-generator approach was employed to measure people‘s social network structures. Social class positions were divided into four levels on the basis of occupation, property rights, authority and skill: (1)professional/administrator, (2)white collar, (3) small proprietor, and (4)working class. Results reveal that a person‘s social position affects the class composition of his/her social networks. In Beijing, the class compositions of the professionals/administrators and the working class people are less heterogeneous than those of the white collar workers and small proprietors. People in all classes tend to make in-group choices, i.e., selecting discussionnetwork members of similar class status. Compared to the working class people, however, the professionals/administrators have a stronger tendency to maintain a closured social network while the small proprietors are more likely to form cross-class networks. These findings can be explained by the relatively low degreeof differentiation in China‘s social class structure and by the opportunities and constraints faced by people in the different classes
This article focuses on the study of attitudes toward social inequality in urban China. The study based on a sample survey conducted in Changchun city. Indicators in the questionnaire are designed to measure three types of social inequalities including income inequality, housing inequality and health care inequality. Chinese attitudes toward social inequality are explained in a refined model.
In the studies of Chinese lineage system, the dominant viewpoint is that lineage is the natural consequence of family. However, by presenting the main theories of lineage and the studies on the process of Chinese lineage system, the author will argue that the geographic ties will never be the contrast replacement of the blood ties, and descent will be neither the natural consequence of consanguinity nor the result of filiation. As a basic principle of lineage, descent itself is entangled with both bloodrelationship and geographic-relationship. Furthermore, the phenomenon is much more obvious in a state like China than the stateless society. In a word, lineage, descent, and blood-relationship are all cultural construction.
This paper attempts to introduce the flexible adjustment mechanism into the social security system for its sustainability and prevention of financial crisis. The concept of Baseline Equality is thus discussed so that obligations of the government, society and individual be respectively defined. What is to be achieved are balances between individual and collective responsibilities, supply and demand, motivation and regulation, and rigidity and flexibility.
The over-strong control of country field by the village organization, to a great extent, is sustained by the law, and becomes part of the villager autonomy. When the enterprises depart from the village, the control of the country field by the village organization has become the essential condition of acting its public authority, and providing the public goods. It is no doubt that the country cannot cosmically change the framework of village management. Therefore, when we push out the innovation aiming at restricting the control of country field by the village organization, especially the project of changing the land-use right into the ownership, we should cautiously consider the relative problems of the village management caused by the innovation.
This paper explores the eontinuality of effects of work unit in intergenerational mobility in urban China based on a 1996 survey data from Wuhan city. Statistical findings suggest that the sector, rank, and size of parents‘ work unit have significant effects on that of their children‘ s first work unit since 1978, and this intergenerational inheritance of work unit is becoming more and more significant even after 1986 when dingti and ne/zhao policy was abolished. It also shows that through all history periods (1949 - 1966, 1966 - 1976, 1977 - 1986, and 1987 - 1996), despite of its increasing effects on occupational status, education has only relatively limited effects on the entrance to work units compared with that of parents‘ work unit. The authors conclude that the effect of work unit on social mobility has not declined, on the contrary, it is, together with education, continuously playing a role in urban Chinese citizen status attainment.
Based on thousands of questionnaire on immigrant female workers in Pearl River Delta, the paper probes into guarantee of fights for immigrant female workers. The paper argues that it is a triple game among enterprise, labor and local government. From the perspective of enterprise, the guarantee of rights for immigrant female workers depends on the character and size of enterprises ; from the perspective of labor, it relates to the educational background and degree of organized behavior. Because of the immigrant trait, immigrant female workers do not have rights to elect or be elected, which forms a natural political obstacle for them to find a mouthpiece for their interest in the government. They lack the support of local social relations. Local governments do not pay special attention to protection of their rights. Therefore, only after the issue was raised out as a question will it gain attention of all circles in the society and pushed forward movements of protecting their rights.
This study aims to redefine ethnicity and identity of Chinese diaspora. By examining the process in which the Indonesian Chinese managed to locate themselves in an “ethnic niche” in Hong Kong, it re-maps the sub-ethnic landscape of Chinese diaspora, which is more complex, dynamic and sensitive than what have been assumed. This study unveils that it is no longer adequate to understand identities in terms of old categories such as “place of origin” and dialect affiliation. Many Chinese migrants resort to invented bonds and transnational linkage for social groupings and identity construction. By responding to new environments in such an innovative way, the Indonesian Chinese not only create another layer of Chineseness but also raise theoretical questions about the nature of Chinese ethnicity in a world of increasing mobility and globalization.
In the author‘s viewpoints, there are five basic propositions that would support sociological research on sexuality to be a kind of precise study. They are that social factors give much more influence than physiological factors do upon men‘ s and women‘ s strong degree of sexual desire, frequency of sexual life, abundance of sexual skill, frequency of orgasm and number of sexual problems. Taking these five propositions as hypotheses, using statistic method of multiple linear regression, the author carries on an analysis of the data of the population-based survey of Chinese people‘ s sexuality(1999-2000). As the result, besides women‘s sexual problem, all of the five hypotheses are proved. Thus, a new subject - sociology of sexuality - is built up basically.
With the workpoint (gongfen) data during collective economy period from a village of Zhuang Minority (zhuangzu) in Guangxi, the author tries to discuss Chayanov‘ s hypothesis that the peasant‘ s work and consumption is balanced, and analyses the economic behavior of peasants during the period of the collective economy in China (1957 - 1982). The author argues that the relation of the peasant‘s labor and consumption during the collective economy period usually satisfies Chayanov‘ s hypothesis: “the degree of the peasant‘s labor devotion depends on the relation of the degree of the need satisfied and hardness of work” This behavior characteristic of the Chinese peasants is not only determined by the state power and ideology at that time, but also constituted, constrained and adjusted by the traditional Chinese culture, value and personhood. Additionally, the author argues that Chayanov‘s hypothesis would provide more universal explanation with the consideration that consumption is a kind of culture construction.