Scoping biology-inspired chemical engineering Biology is a rich source of great ideas that can inspire us to find successful ways to solve the challenging problems in engineering practices including those in the chemical industry. Bio-inspired chemical engineering(Bio Ch E)may be recognized as a significant branch of chemical engineering. It may consist of, but not limited to, the following three aspects: 1) Chemical engineering principles and unit operations in biological systems; 2) Process engineering principles for producing existing or developing new chemical products through living ‘devices’;and 3) Chemical engineering processes and equipment that are designed and constructed through mimicking(does not have to reproduce one hundred percent) the biological systems including their physical–chemical and mechanical structures to deliver uniquely beneficial performances. This may also include the bio-inspired sensors for process monitoring. In this paper, the above aspects are defined and discussed which establishes the scope of BioChE.
Review on the nanoparticle fluidization science and technology Gas fluidization has an ability to turn static particles to fluid-like dense flow, which allows greatly improved heat transfer among porous powders and highly efficient solid processing to become reality. As the rising star of current scientific research, some nanoparticles can also be fluidized in the form of agglomerates, with sizes ranging from tens to hundreds of microns. Herein, we have reviewed the recent progress on nanomaterial agglomeration and their fluidization behavior, the assisted techniques to enhance the fluidization of nanomaterials,including some mechanical measures, external fields and improved gas injections, as well as their effects on solid fluidization and mixing behaviors. Most of these techniques are effective in breaking large agglomerates and promoting particulate fluidization, meanwhile, the solid mixing is intensified under assisted fluidization. The applications of nanofluidization in nanostructured material production and sustainable chemical industry are further presented. In summary, the fluidization science of multidimensional, multicomponent and multifunctional particles, their multi-phase characterization, and the guideline of fluidized bed coupled process are prerequisites for the sustainable development of fluidized bed based materials, energy and chemical industry.
Multi-functional forward osmosis draw solutes for seawater desalination Forward osmosis(FO), as one of the emerging desalination technologies, has the potential to produce fresh water from a variety of water sources by utilizing the osmotic pressure gradient across a semi-permeable membrane.Draw solution, as an essential component of any FO process, can extract water molecules from seawater or wastewater. An ideal draw solution should meet three essential requirements, namely high osmotic pressure, low reverse flux, and facile regeneration mechanism. The selection of proper draw solutes is especially critical for an energy-efficient FO process since the energy consumption mostly arises from the separation or regeneration of the draw solution. Recently, we developed a few multi-functional FO draw solutes, mainly aiming to enhance the FO water flux and to explore facile re-concentration methods. This review summarizes these draw solutes,including Na~+_- functionalized carbon quantum dots, thermoresponsive copolymers, hydrophilic magnetic nanoparticles, and thermoresponsive magnetic nanoparticles.
Bio-inspired enantioseparation for chiral compounds Biomacromolecules including protein and nucleic acids are considered as promising chiral selectors in the fields of enantioselective separation, owing to their inherent chirality, polymorphous structures, stable physicochemical properties, good biocompatibility as well as susceptible modification and regulation. In this review, firstly,enantioselective recognition mechanism of proteins and nucleic acids toward different enantiomers is discussed,as well as their potential applications on the chiral separation of racemic compounds. Secondly, preparative enantioseparation adopting biomolecule-modified hybrid materials including porous microspheres, magnetic nanoparticles and affinity membranes, are introduced respectively. Finally, novel chiroptical materials constructed on the basis of chiral induction, transfer, amplification and transcription, are recognized as promising candidates in future applications.
Process engineering in electrochemical energy devices innovation This review focuses on the application of process engineering in electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices innovation. For polymer electrolyte based devices, it highlights that a strategic simple switch from proton exchange membranes（PEMs） to hydroxide exchange membranes（HEMs） may lead to a new-generation of affordable electrochemical energy devices including fuel cells, electrolyzers, and solar hydrogen generators. For lithium-ion batteries, a series of advancements in design and chemistry are required for electric vehicle and energy storage applications. Manufacturing process development and optimization of the LiF eP O4/C cathode materials and several emerging novel anode materials are also discussed using the authors’ work as examples.Design and manufacturing process of lithium-ion battery electrodes are introduced in detail, and modeling and optimization of large-scale lithium-ion batteries are also presented. Electrochemical energy materials and device innovations can be further prompted by better understanding of the fundamental transport phenomena involved in unit operations.
In-situ design and construction of lithium-ion battery electrodes on metal substrates with enhanced performances：A brief review For the ever-growing demand of advanced lithium-ion batteries, it is highly desirable to grow self-supported micro-/nanostructured arrays on metal substrates as electrodes directly. The in-situ growth of electrode materials on the conducting substrates greatly simplifies the electrode fabrication process without using any binders or conductive additives. Moreover, the well-ordered arrays closely connected to the current collectors can provide direct electron transport pathways and enhanced accommodation of strains arisen from lithium ion lithiation/delithiation. This article summarizes our recent work on design and construction of lithium-ion battery electrodes on metal substrates. An aqueous solution-based process and a microemulsion-mediated process have been respectively presented to control the kinetic and thermodynamic processes for the micro-/nanostructured array growth on metal substrates, with particular attention to CuO nanorod arrays and microcog arrays successfully prepared on Cu foil substrates. They can be directly used as binder-free electrodes to build advanced lithium-ion batteries with high energy, high safety and high stability.
Developments in the understanding of gas–solid contact efficiency in the circulating fluidized bed riser reactor：A review In the last several decades, circulating fluidized bed reactors have been studied in many aspects including hydrodynamics, heat and mass transfer and gas–solid two phase contacting. However, despite the abundance of review papers on hydrodynamics, there is no summary paper on gas–solid contact efficiency to date, especially on high density circulating fluidized beds(CFBs). This paper gives an introduction to, and a review of the measurement of contact efficiency in circulating fluidized bed riser. Firstly, the popular testing method of contact efficiency including the method of heating transfer experiment and hot model reaction are discussed, then previous published papers are reviewed based on the discussed methods. Some key results of the experimental work are described and discussed. Gas–solid contact efficiency is affected by the operating conditions as well as the particle size distribution. The result of the contact efficiency shows that the CFB riser is far away from an ideal plug flow reactor due to the characteristics of hydrodynamics in the riser. Lacunae in the available literature have been delineated and recommendations have been made for further work.
Asymmetric breakup of a droplet in an axisymmetric extensional flow The asymmetric breakups of a droplet in an axisymmetric cross-like microfluidic device are investigated by using a three-dimensional volume of fluid(VOF) multiphase numerical model. Two kinds of asymmetries(droplet location deviation from the symmetric geometry center and different flow rates at two symmetric outlets) generate asymmetric flow fields near the droplet, which results in the asymmetric breakup of the latter. Four typical breakup regimes(no breakup, one-side breakup, retraction breakup and direct breakup) have been observed.Two regime maps are plotted to describe the transition from one regime to another for the two types of different asymmetries, respectively. A power law model, which is based on the three critical factors(the capillary number,the asymmetry of flow fields and the initial volume ratio), is employed to predict the volume ratio of the two unequal daughter droplets generated in the direct breakup. The influences of capillary numbers and the asymmetries have been studied systematically in this paper. The larger the asymmetry is, the bigger the oneside breakup zone is. The larger the capillary number is, the more possible the breakup is in the direct breakup zone. When the radius of the initial droplet is 20 μm, the critical capillary numbers are 0.122, 0.128, 0.145,0.165, 0.192 and 0.226 for flow asymmetry factor AS= 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5, respectively, in the flow system whose asymmetry is generated by location deviations. In the flow system whose asymmetry is generated by two different flow rates at two outlets, the critical capillary numbers are 0.121, 0.133, 0.145, 0.156 and 0.167 for AS= 1/21, 3/23, 1/5, 7/27 and 9/29, respectively.
A new approach to quantifying vehicle induced turbulence for complex traffic scenarios 交通相关的污染物质不利地影响空气质量，特别在主要车道附近的区域。导致车辆的骚乱(VIT ) 是控制起始的冲淡的一个重要因素，分散，并且最终由在微型环境改变条件的污染物质的化学、物理的命运。这研究使用了流畅的软件在车道上产生了为导致车辆的骚乱(VIT ) 建模的计算液体动力学(CFD ) ，与狂暴的动能(TKE ) 上的车辆车辆相互作用，交通密度和车辆作文的影响的一个焦点。第一次，我们证明从在系列旅行的多重车辆的全面 TKE 能被附加每车辆的 TKE 估计，没有当距离比一车辆长度大时，考虑在他们之间的距离。自从它启用一条新途径到全面 TKE 作为车辆的数字的功能计算的 VIT 模拟，这发现是特别地重要的。我们发现在在邻近的小巷靠着对方旅行的车辆之间的相互作用是不足道的，不管怎样，交通的方向流动。因而，不同交通情形的模拟能被把双向交通当作单程的交通实质地简化，与在全面平均卷的 TKE 的不到 5% 差别。我们也开发了作为数字的功能和车辆的类型允许全面平均卷的 TKE 的评价的方程。
Solvent extraction of lanthanum and cerium ions from hydrochloric acidic aqueous solutions using partly saponified 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester In order to clarify the extraction process with saponified extractant, the solvent extraction experiments of rare earth elements（REEs）, lanthanum and cerium, by using partly saponified 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester（EHEHPA, HL） from hydrochloric acidic solutions have been performed. The concentration of initial aqueous rare earth ion was in a range of 0.0010–0.1000 mol·L-1; EHEHPA in a range of 0.2877–0.8631 mol·L-1 with saponification rate of 0.3（mole fraction）, and the initial aqueous p H in a range of 1.00–4.00. Firstly, the extracted species were determined by the saturation extraction capacity method. Secondly, according to the equilibrium aqueous pH values, the extraction processes were divided into three different categories: extraction with saponified EHEHPA, extraction with un-saponified EHEHPA, and hydrolysis process. Finally, for the first two processes, in order to predict the distribution ratio, two semi-empirical calculation models were developed with.The calculation results are in good agreement well with the experimental data.
An easily recoverable thermo-sensitive polyelectrolyte as draw agent for forward osmosis process As a potential solution to the crises of energy and resources, forward osmosis（FO） has been limited by the development of draw agents. An ideal draw agent should be able to generate high osmotic pressure and can be easily recovered. In this study, a thermo-sensitive polyelectrolyte of poly（N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid）（PNA）is developed as an efficient draw agent, and two easy and simple methods are proposed to effectively recover the polyelectrolytes. After adjusting the pH value of polyelectrolyte solutions to around 6.0, the polyelectrolyte can generate relatively high osmotic pressure, and induce average water fluxes of 2.09 and 2.95 L·m-2·h-1 during12 h FO processes when the polyelectrolyte concentrations are 0.20 and 0.38 g·ml-1 respectively. After acidifying and heating to 70 °C, the PNA-10 polyelectrolyte can aggregate together because of hydrophobic association and separate from water, so it can be easily recovered by either simple centrifugation or gravitational sedimentation. The recovery ratios of PNA-10 polyelectrolyte in both methods are as high as 89%, and the recovered polyelectrolytes can be reused with almost the same FO performance as fresh ones. The results in this study provide valuable guidance for designing efficient and easily recoverable draw agents for FO processes.
Equilibrium and kinetics of copper ions removal from wastewater by ion exchange 从由离子交换的废水的铜离子的移动用 iminodiacetate 树脂被学习了。为铜离子的树脂的能力被决定了是 2.30 ；由在 25 测量平衡等温线的 mmol·g − 1 ； °C 和起始的 pH 3.5 珍视最后的平衡 pH 价值在哪儿是 5。平衡等温线模型的分析证明最好的健美的模型是 Langmuir-Freundlich。离子交换过程的动力学被调查了，四个运动模型也就是被测试了：Ritchie 模型，伪秒顺序模型，伪 first 顺序模型和 Elovich 当模特儿。伪秒顺序模型提供对运动数据合适的最好。
Imaging protein crystal growth behaviour in batch cooling crystallisation The temporal and spatial growth behaviour of protein crystals, subject to different cooling strategies in protein crystallisation was investigated. Although the impact of temperature and cooling rate on crystal growth of small molecules was well documented, much less has been reported on their impact on the crystallisation of proteins. In this paper, an experimental set-up is configured to carry out such a study which involves an automatic temperature controlled hot-stage crystalliser fitted with a real-time imaging system. Linbro parallel crystallisation experiments(24-well plate) were also conducted to find the suitable initial conditions to be used in the hot-stage crystallisation experiments, including the initial concentration of HEW lysozyme solutions, precipitate concentration and pH value. It was observed that fast cooling rates at the early stage led to precipitates while slow cooling rates produced crystal nuclei, and very slow cooling rates, much smaller than for small molecules are critical to the growth of the nuclei and the crystals to a desired shape. The interesting results provide valuable insight as well as experimental proof of the feasibility and effectiveness of cooling as a means for achieving controlled protein crystallisation, compared with the evaporation approach which was widely used to grow single large crystals for X-ray diffraction study. Since cooling rate control can be easily achieved and has good repeatability, it suggests that large-scale production of protein crystals can be effectively achieved by manipulating cooling rates.
A two-stage blade-packing rotating packed bed for intensification of continuous distillation A two-stage blade-packing rotating packed bed（TSBP-RPB） was designed and developed for the intensification of continuous distillation. The mass transfer parameters of the TSBP-RPB were investigated using a chemisorption system. Continuous distillation experiments were conducted in the TSBP-RPB by the methanol–water binary system. Experimental results showed that values of the effective interfacial area and liquid-side mass transfer coefficient of the TSBP-RPB were 93–337 m2·m-3 and 0.05–0.19 cm·s-1, respectively. The height of equivalent theoretical plate（HETP） of the TSBP-RPB ranged from 1.9 to 10 cm. Moreover, the TSBP-RPB is easy to be manufactured, which shows great potential for the application of continuous distillation.
Numerical investigation on freeze-drying of aqueous material frozen with pre-built pores Freeze-drying of the initially porous frozen material with pre-built pores from liquid material was found experimentally to save drying time by over 30% with an initial saturation being 0.28 compared with the conventional operation with the initial saturation being 1, using mannitol as the solid material. In order to understand the mass and heat transfer phenomena of this novel process, a two-dimensional mathematical model of coupled mass and heat transfer was derived with reference to the cylindrical coordinate system. Three adsorption–desorption equilibrium relationships between the vapour pressure and saturation value namely, power-law, Redhead’s style and Kelvin’s style equation, were tested. Kelvin’s style in exponential form of adsorption equilibrium relation gave an excellent agreement between the model prediction and experimental measurement when the equation parameter, γ, of 5000 was applied. Analyses of temperature and ice saturation profiles show that additional heat needs to be supplied to increase the sample temperature in order to promote the desorption process. Simulation also shows that there is a threshold initial porosity after which the drying time decreased with the increase in the initial porosity. Enhanced freeze-drying is expected to be achieved by simultaneously enhancing mass and heat transfer of the process.
Catalytic conversion of ethyl lactate to 1,2-propanediol over CuO An efficient conversion of biomass-derived ethyl lactate to 1,2-propanediol(1,2-PDO) over CuO was investigated.Among the catalysts we tested, CuO, Cu2 O and Co showed excellent catalytic activity for the conversion of ethyl lactate to 1,2-PDO in water, and CuO was more active and gave the best result. The 1,2-PDO yield of 93.6% was achieved when Zn acted as a reductant. The results indicated that in situ formed hydrogen by the oxidation of Zn in water is more effective than gaseous hydrogen, which failed to produce the 1,2-PDO from ethyl lactate.From a practical point of view, the present method may provide a useful route for the production of 1,2-PDO from ethyl lactate.
Reaction mechanism of methyl nitrite dissociation during co catalytic coupling to dimethyl oxalate：A density functional theory study Dissociation of methyl nitrite is the first step during CO catalytic coupling to dimethyl oxalate followed by hydrogenation to ethyl glycol in a typical coal to liquid process. In this work, the first-principle calculations based on density functional theory were performed to explore the reaction mechanism for the non-catalytic dissociation of methyl nitrite in the gas phase and the catalytic dissociation of methyl nitrite on Pd（111） surface since palladium supported on alpha-alumina is the most effective catalyst for the coupling. For the non-catalytic case, the calculated results show that the CH3O–NO bond will break with a bond energy of 1.91 eV, and the produced CH3O radicals easily decompose to formaldehyde, while the further dissociation of formaldehyde in the gas phase is difficult due to the strong C–H bond. On the other hand, the catalytic dissociation of methyl nitrite on Pd（111） to the adsorbed CH3O and NO takes place with a small energy barrier of 0.03 eV. The calculated activation energies along the proposed reaction pathways indicate that（i） at low coverage, a successive dehydrogenation of the adsorbed CH3O to CO and H is favored while（ii） at high coverage, hydrogenation of CH3O to methanol and carbonylation of CH3O to methyl formate are more preferred. On the basis of the proposed reaction mechanism,two meaningful ways are proposed to suppress the dissociation of methyl nitrate during the CO catalytic coupling to dimethyl oxalate.
CO2 methanation over TiO2–Al2O3 binary oxides supported Ru catalysts TiO2 modified Al2O3 binary oxide was prepared by a wet-impregnation method and used as the support for ruthenium catalyst. The catalytic performance of Ru/TiO2–Al2O3catalyst in CO2 methanation reaction was investigated. Compared with Ru/Al2O3 catalyst, the Ru/TiO2–Al2O3catalytic system exhibited a much higher activity in CO2 methanation reaction. The reaction rate over Ru/TiO2–Al2O3 was 0.59 mol CO2·（g Ru）1·h-1, 3.1 times higher than that on Ru/Al2O3[0.19 mol CO2·（gRu）-1·h-1]. The effect of TiO2 content and TiO2–Al2O3calcination temperature on catalytic performance was addressed. The corresponding structures of each catalyst were characterized by means of H2-TPR, XRD, and TEM. Results indicated that the averaged particle size of the Ru on TiO2–Al2O3support is 2.8 nm, smaller than that on Al2O3 support of 4.3 nm. Therefore, we conclude that the improved activity over Ru/TiO2–Al2O3catalyst is originated from the smaller particle size of ruthenium resulting from a strong interaction between Ru and the rutile-TiO2 support, which hindered the aggregation of Ru nanoparticles.
The biomimetic catalytic synthesis of acetal compounds using β-cyclodextrin as catalyst Based on the principle of biomimetic catalysis, β-cyclodextrin was applied to the acetalation reaction as a facile and efficient catalyst, and the synthesis was environmentally friendly with atomic economy. The influencing factors of the acetalation reaction e.g. the reaction time, the volume of water-carrying agent,the molar ratio of catalyst to benzaldehyde and the molar ratio of glycol to benzaldehyde had been studied.The yield of benzaldehyde glycol acetal would reach a maximum of 81.3% under the conditions approached.Six of other acetals were also synthesized. Moreover, a plausible reaction mechanism for the formation of acetal had been proposed.
Experimental and in silico studies on three hydrophobic charge-induction adsorbents for porcine immunoglobulin purification Three hydrophobic charge-induction adsorbents with functional ligands of 4-mercapto-ethyl-pyridine, 2-mercapto-methyl-imidazole or 2-mercapto-benzimidazole were evaluated in the purification of porcine immunoglobulin from porcine blood. Adsorption isotherms were studied under different pH conditions. The adsorbent with 2-mercapto-methyl-imidazole as the ligand showed reasonable adsorption capacity(43.60 mg·g-1gel)with great selectivity and it also showed the best elution performance in chromatographic studies. A multi-pH step elution process was proposed for the 2-mercapto-methyl-imidazole adsorbent, and the results showed that high immunoglobulin purity（94.3%） and a yield of 9.8 mg·（ml plasma）-1 could be achieved under the optimal condition of loading（pH 5.0）–pre-elution（pH 7.0）–elution（pH 3.8）. Moreover, molecular simulation was employed to help in analyzing the binding mechanism between the ligands and immunoglobulin, and the results showed that both 2-mercapto-benzimidazole and 2-mercapto-methyl-imidazole ligands were docked on the same pocket（around TYR319 and LEU309） of the Fc fragment of immunoglobulin, with 2-mercaptobenzimidazole showing stronger binding interactions.
Production and characterization of exopolysaccharides in mycelial culture of Cordyceps sinensis fungus Cs-HK1 with different carbon sources The effects of different carbon sources（sugars） on the production and molecular properties of exopolysaccharides（EPS） were evaluated in the mycelial liquid culture of a medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis Cs-HK1. Galactose or mannose was used(at 5 g·L-1) as a secondary carbon source with glucose(35 g·L-1) at the mass ratio of 1:7. Mannose was consumed notably since the first day of culture, but galactose was not even after glucose was exhausted.The volumetric yield of EPS in culture was increased slightly with the addition of galactose and decreased with mannose. The monosaccharide composition of EPS was also different, e.g., on day 8, the glucose contents of EPS were 76%with the addition of mannose, 59% with galactose, compared with 62% with glucose only. The molecular weight distribution of EPS was also affected by the secondary carbon source, being generally lower compared with that with glucose only. The results suggested that the addition of galactose improved the total yield of EPS in culture while mannose can improve the yield of glucan constituent of EPS.
A computational analysis of the impact of mass transport and shear on three-dimensional stem cell cultures in perfused micro-bioreactors 在这研究，计算液体动力学(CFD ) 被用来调查并且比较生物反应器参数的影响(例如它的几何学，中等流动率，支架配置) 在人的间充质的干细胞(hMSC ) 上的本地运输现象和，因此他们的影响上扩大。TissueFlex® 的几何特征(限制的 Zyoxel，英国牛津) microbioreactor 被认为建立包含 alginate 的一个虚拟生物反应器(在平板和祷告配置) 脚手架。生物反应器和脚手架与作为消费实体的葡萄糖被建模的房间被播种。广泛地使用的葡萄糖媒介， Dulbecco 的修改的鹰媒介(DMEM ) ，以 25 和 100 的二入口流动率供应了； l·h − 1, 在生物反应器内作为液体阶段被建模。基于把维的分析用于这个问题，以及在详细三维的短暂 CFD 结果上，调查表明内部的导致的缺省生物反应器设计和边界条件和外部葡萄糖搬运，以及砍压力，那对 hMSC 生长和扩大导致。而且，结果显示了 ‘top-inout’设计(与它的对称的对应物对比) 更高导致了砍为一样的媒介入口率的应力(25 ； l·h − 1), 能容易被利用导致砍依赖的区别的一个特征。这些调查结果进一步作为一个柔韧的设计工具证实 CFD 的适用性。
Salt-free reactive dyeing of betaine-modified cationic cotton fabrics with enhanced dye fixation Novel cationic cotton fabrics were prepared by an efficient and simple one-step pad–dry–bake pretreatment process with betaine as cationic reagent. Ester bonds formed between cotton fibers and betaine hydrochloride were proved by Fourier transformed infrared attenuated total reflection(FTIR-ATR) spectra. Moreover, the properties of the cationic fabrics, including X-ray Diffraction(XRD), tensile strength and whiteness and yellowness index,were investigated in comparison with that of the untreated ones. The cationic fabrics were applied in salt-free dyeing of C.I. Reactive Red 195, C.I. Reactive Yellow 145 and C.I. Reactive Blue 19. Different dye fixation processes were applied and compared for untreated and cationic cotton. Dye fixation and color fastness properties of the dyes were tested, and the results presented that dye fixation on the cationic fabrics in the absence of salt was improved with satisfactory light fastness property and applicable wash and rub fastnesses.
Experiment and simulation of foaming injection molding of polypropylene/nano-calcium carbonate composites by supercritical carbon dioxide Microcellular injection molding of neat isotactic polypropylene（iPP） and isotactic polypropylene/nano-calcium carbonate composites（i PP/nano-CaCO3） was performed using supercritical carbon dioxide as the physical blowing agent. The influences of filler content and operating conditions on microstructure morphology of i PP and i PP/nano-CaCO3 microcellular samples were studied systematically. The results showed the bubble size of the microcellular samples could be effectively decreased while the cell density increased for i PP/nano-CaCO3 composites, especially at high CO2 concentration and back pressure, low mold temperature and injection speed, and high filler content. Then Moldex 3D was applied to simulate the microcellular injection molding process, with the application of the measured ScCO2 solubility and diffusion data for i PP and i PP/nano-Ca CO3 composites respectively. For neat i PP, the simulated bubble size and density distribution in the center section of tensile bars showed a good agreement with the experimental values. However, for i PP/nano-CaCO3 composites, the correction factor for nucleation activation energy F and the pre-exponential factor of nucleation rate f0 were obtained by nonlinear regression on the experimental bubble size and density distribution. The parameters F and f0 can be used to predict the microcellular injection molding process for i PP/nano-CaCO3 composites by Moldex 3D.
Characterization and adsorption behaviors of a novel synthesized mesoporous silica coated carbon composite A novel mesoporous silica coated carbon composite（denoted SEG） with hierarchical pore structure has been successfully prepared in an aqueous solution that contains triblock copolymer template, aluminum chloride, siliceous source and expanded graphite. Textural property and morphology of the SEG composite were characterized by the combination of X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption–desorption, scanning electron microscopy,transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared measurements. Results show that mesoporous silica is steadily and uniformly grown on the surface of the graphite slices and the thickness of the silica layer can be finely tuned according to the silica/C molar ratio in the initial reaction solution. This newly synthesized SEG composite shows greatly increased adsorption capacity to methylene blue than the pristine expanded graphite in the batch tests. Both Langmuir and Frendlich models were further used to evaluate the adsorption isotherms of methylene blue over expanded graphite and SEG samples with different silica contents. Finally, pseudosecond-order model was used to describe the kinetics of methylene blue over expanded graphite and the silica-carbon composites.
Effect of ionic liquids on stability of O/W miniemulsion for application of low emission coating products Room temperature ionic liquids(RTILs) are non-volatile organic salts. They may replace conventional coalescing agents in latex coating thus reducing volatile organic compounds(VOCs) emission as well as improving performance of latex coating products such as better thermal stability, conductivity, and antifouling property. The formation of latex coating containing RTILs can be achieved by encapsulation of RTILs inside particles via miniemulsion polymerization. In this study, the role of RTILs and its concentration on stability of miniemulsion during storage and polymerization were investigated. It has been found that, above a critical concentration(10 wt%), adding more RTILs to oil phase may weaken miniemulsion stability during storage as well as polymerization. Such observations were consistent with the zeta potential measurement for miniemulsions prepared at the similar conditions. The results obtained here would be a useful guideline for the development of new waterborne coating products with desirable functions and particle sizes.
Economic analysis in product design——A case study of a TCM dietary supplement An approach for the economic analysis of chemical product design is proposed. It takes into account of customers’ preference on product quality and economic considerations such as pricing, profit, market share, capital investment, and operating cost. The activities needed to support business decision making – identifying product quality, estimating product cost, calculating financial metrics, and performing make–buy analysis – are discussed.The design of a Ganoderma lucidum dietary supplement, a traditional Chinese medicinal(TCM) product, is used to illustrate all the activities in this approach.
Notes for Contributors
Scoping biology-inspired chemical engineering(Xiao Dong Chen)
Review on the nanoparticle fluidization science and technology(Xiaolin Zhu;Qiang Zhang;Yao Wang;Fei Wei)
Multi-functional forward osmosis draw solutes for seawater desalination(Dieling Zhao;Shucheng Chen;Chun Xian Guo;Qipeng Zhao;Xianmao Lu)
Bio-inspired enantioseparation for chiral compounds(Yan Fu;Jinjin Yang;Jinli Zhang[1,2];Wei Li)
Process engineering in electrochemical energy devices innovation(Yingying Xie;Weimin Zhang;Shuang Gu;Yushan Yan;Zi-Feng Ma)
In-situ design and construction of lithium-ion battery electrodes on metal substrates with enhanced performances：A brief review(Weixin Zhang[1,2];Yingmeng Zhang[1,2];Zeheng Yang[1,2];Gongde Chen[1,2];Guo Ma[1,2];Qiang Wang[1,2])
Developments in the understanding of gas–solid contact efficiency in the circulating fluidized bed riser reactor：A review(Chengxiu Wang;Jesse Zhu[1,2])
Asymmetric breakup of a droplet in an axisymmetric extensional flow(Dongming Yu[1,2];Manman Zheng;Taoming Jin;Jingtao Wang)
A new approach to quantifying vehicle induced turbulence for complex traffic scenarios(Yesul Kim;Li Huang;Sunling Gong[1,2];Charles Q.Jia)
Solvent extraction of lanthanum and cerium ions from hydrochloric acidic aqueous solutions using partly saponified 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester(Hailong Hou;Jianhong Xu;Yundong Wang;Jinnan Chen)
An easily recoverable thermo-sensitive polyelectrolyte as draw agent for forward osmosis process(Yanni Wang;Hairong Yu;Rui Xie;Kuangmin Zhao;Xiaojie Ju;Wei Wang;Zhuang Liu;Liangyin Chu[1,2])
Equilibrium and kinetics of copper ions removal from wastewater by ion exchange(P.C.C.Siu;L.F.Koong;J.Saleem;J.Barford;G.McKay[1,2])
Imaging protein crystal growth behaviour in batch cooling crystallisation(Jing J.Liu[1,2];Cai Y.Ma;Xue Z.Wang[1,2])
A two-stage blade-packing rotating packed bed for intensification of continuous distillation(Yong Luo;Guangwen Chu;Le Sang;Haikui Zou;Yang Xiang;Jianfeng Chen[1,2])
Numerical investigation on freeze-drying of aqueous material frozen with pre-built pores(Wei Wang;Dapeng Hu;Yanqiu Pan;Guohua Chen)
Catalytic conversion of ethyl lactate to 1,2-propanediol over CuO(Song Zhang;Zhibao Huo;Dezhang Ren;Jiang Luo;Jun Fu;Lu Li;Fangming Jin)
Reaction mechanism of methyl nitrite dissociation during co catalytic coupling to dimethyl oxalate：A density functional theory study(Chen Fan;Man Luo;Wende Xiao)
CO2 methanation over TiO2–Al2O3 binary oxides supported Ru catalysts(Jinghua Xu[1,2];Qingquan Lin;Xiong Su;Hongmin Duan;Haoran Geng;Yanqiang Huang)
The biomimetic catalytic synthesis of acetal compounds using β-cyclodextrin as catalyst(Daohong Xia;Shengjuan Jiang;Lantao Li;Yuzhi Xiang;Lijun Zhu)
Experimental and in silico studies on three hydrophobic charge-induction adsorbents for porcine immunoglobulin purification(Qilei Zhang;Tiantian Zhuang;Hongfei Tong;Hongyin Wang;Dongqiang Lin;Shanjing Yao)
Production and characterization of exopolysaccharides in mycelial culture of Cordyceps sinensis fungus Cs-HK1 with different carbon sources(Xia Chen;Jian-yong Wu;Xiaoting Gui)
A computational analysis of the impact of mass transport and shear on three-dimensional stem cell cultures in perfused micro-bioreactors(Himanshu Kaul[1,2];Yiannis Ventikos;Zhanfeng Cui)
Salt-free reactive dyeing of betaine-modified cationic cotton fabrics with enhanced dye fixation(Wei Ma;Mei Meng;Shumin Yan;Shufen Zhang)
Experiment and simulation of foaming injection molding of polypropylene/nano-calcium carbonate composites by supercritical carbon dioxide(Zhenhao Xi[1,2];Jie Chen[1,2];Tao Liu;Ling Zhao;Lih-Sheng Turng)
Characterization and adsorption behaviors of a novel synthesized mesoporous silica coated carbon composite(Sai Wang;Songsong Xu;Chengbao Liu;Feng Chen;Dongtian Wang;Shouqing Liu;Zhigang Chen;Zhengying Wu)
Effect of ionic liquids on stability of O/W miniemulsion for application of low emission coating products(Yiyang Kong;Binjie Hu;Yanqing Guo;Yifan Wu)
Economic analysis in product design——A case study of a TCM dietary supplement(Yuen Shan Cheng;Ka Yip Fung;Ka Ming Ng;Christianto Wibowo)
Notes for Contributors
Preface(Guohua Chen;Jesse Zhu)