The Hefei light source(HLS) has been upgraded into HLS II, with increased brightness and stability. In this paper, the new injection system is described. Elegant program is used to simulate the particles motion in 6D phase space. In the process of tracking simulation of electrons, the system tolerances and magnet errors are introduced. Influences to the injection efficiency from beam injection deviation are studied. These provide important reference for realizing the Top-up injection.
The integrated gradient of a quadrupole will be deviated by a close neighboring sextupole, and this is called the effect of fringe field interference. Using the Lie algebra techniques, an analytical expression for the betatron tune shift due to this effect has been derived. The process does not depend on the supposition of the thin-lens quadrupoles. It can be used to estimate the tune shift differences between the designed lattice and the one including the fringe field interference. More generally, the method can be applied to other kinds of fringe field interference.
A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis setup was developed for heavy metal detection in aqueous solutions with a 300 m Ci241Am-Be neutron source and a4 4 inch(diameter height) BGO detector. In the present work, heavy metals, including Mn, Cu, Ni, Cr and Zn, were measured by the setup. The minimum detectable concentrations of Mn, Cu, Ni, Cr and Zn were 246.6, 391.2, 218.1,301.5 and 2804.1 ppm, respectively. The minimum detectable concentration of each element and the linearity response between the characteristic peak counts and elements concentrations have been studied. And the results showed that all heavy metals had a good linear relationship between characteristic peak counts and concentrations.
High-energy dual-energy X-ray digital radiography imaging is mainly used in the material recognition of cargo inspection. We introduce the development history and principle of the technology and describe the data process flow of our system. The system corrects original data to get a dual-energy transparence image. Material categories of all points in the image are identified by the classification curve,which is related to the X-ray energy spectrum. For the calibration of classification curve, our strategy involves a basic curve calibration and a real-time correction devoted to enhancing the classification accuracy. Image segmentation and denoising methods are applied to smooth the image. The image contains more information after colorization. Some results show that our methods achieve the desired effect.
A nondestructive instrumental neutron activation analysis with high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides was developed and used for measurement of trace element contents in samples of bone to determine health and diseases. Using this method, the silver(Ag), cobalt(Co), chromium(Cr), iron(Fe), mercury(Hg), rubidium(Rb), antimony(Sb), selenium(Se), and zinc(Zn) mass fractions were estimated in bone samples from 27 patients with intact bone(12 females and 15 males, aged from 16 to 49 years) who had died from various non-bone-related causes, mainly unexpected traumas,and from 5 patients with chondroma(2 females and 3males, 15–42 years old), obtained from open biopsies or after operation. The reliability of the differences in the results between intact bone and bone affected by chondroma was evaluated by a parametric Student’s t test and a nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test. It was found that in the bone affected by chondroma, the mean mass fractions of Co, Cr, Fe, Se, Sb, and Zn were significantly higher than in normal bone tissues. In the neoplastic bone, many correlations between trace elements found in the control group were no longer evident. This work revealed that there is asignificant disturbance of the trace element metabolism in bone affected by chondroma.
The objectives of this study are to evaluate the dosimetric impact of hip prosthesis using ELEKTA linac X-rays and compare the dose perturbations of metallic and nonmetallic hip prostheses. The local dose distributions of typical hip prostheses were calculated for 4, 8, and 15 MV beams by Geant4. Three prosthesis materials were selected in calculation to reveal the relation between material type and local dose perturbations of prostheses. Furthermore,the effect of nominal energy on prosthesis perturbation was also discussed and analyzed. Taking the calculated dose to the hip joint as reference, considerable differences were observed between prostheses and hip joints. In the prosthesis shadow region, the relative dose decreasing was up to 36, 21, and 16 % for the Co–Cr–Mo alloy, titanium alloy, and ceramic prostheses, respectively. In backscattering region, the relative dose increasing was about1–7 %. Overall, the results show that the dose perturbation effect of prostheses was mainly determined by material type, nominal energy, and density. Among these typical hip prostheses, ceramic prosthesis introduces the lowest dose perturbations.
The feasibility of adsorption and the adsorption behavior of radon on a nanomaterial-based zeolitic imidazolate framework-8(ZIF-8) adsorbent were investigated.Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation and four-channel low-background a/b measurement were performed to examine the adsorption kinetics of this adsorbent. Results demonstrated that ZIF-8 is a good adsorbent of radon.Therefore, this adsorbent can be used to significantly reduce the hazardous effects of radon on occupational radiation workers.
Bromate（BrO3） is a disinfection by-product in drinking water, and its removal is very difficult especially at low levels.60 Co gamma rays were used to remove BrO3in aqueous solution in this study. The effects of absorbed doses, BrO3initial concentration, gas saturation, p H value and coexisting anions(Cl, NO 3, SO2 4and HCO 3=CO32 -)on BrO3reduction were evaluated. After 4.0-k Gy irradiation of air-equilibrated solution of 30.7 lg/L BrO3, the residual BrO3was 8.3 lg/L, which is below the maximum contaminant level of drinking water. The BrO3reduction rate increased with the dose, in the order of N2[ air [ O2[ N2O atmosphere under similar conditions. The results also show that high p H favored the BrO3removal. According to the experimental results, it can be concluded that the efficiency of decomposing BrO3by reactive species followed the order of e aq[ H [ HO2 [ O2. Coexisting Cl, HCO 3=CO32 -and SO2 4ions have little effect on BrO3removal, whereas NO3can inhibit its removal as a result of competition with BrO3for e aq.
The radiation-induced degradation of 4-nitrophenol（4-NP） was performed in combination with a Fenton reagent, H2O2, and Ti O2 nanoparticles to investigate the synergetic effects of radiolytical degradation combined with other advanced oxidation processes. The experimental results indicated that the degradation efficiency of 4-NP was 87.5, 57.4, and 41.0 % at a dose of 20 k Gy when its initial concentration was 100, 200, and 350 mg/L, respectively. Radiation combined with H2O2, the Fenton method,and Ti O2 remarkably increased the degradation efficiency of 4-NP, showing the synergetic effects. Radiation may enhance the biodegradability of 4-NP, suggesting that it has the potential to be used as a pretreatment method in combination with the biological method for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing toxic organic pollutants. Major intermediates during the 4-NP degradation process were identified and a possible degradation pathway was tentatively proposed.
Radio genetic therapy which combines gene therapy with radiotherapy has shown promising results in cancer treatment. In this study, an oncolytic adenovirusbased gene therapy system regulated by radiation was constructed to improve the cancer curative effect. This gene therapy system incorporated the radiation-inducible early growth response gene（Egr-1） promoter and the anticancer gene tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand（TRAIL）. To confirm the antitumor effect of Ad-ET combined with12C6+tion irradiation, the survival and apoptosis fraction of tumor cells HT1080 and normal cells MRC-5 in combination treatment were detected by CCK-8 assay and FACS analysis. Then the expression levels of TRAIL gene and protein were tested by real-time PCR and western blotting. The results show that12C6+tion irradiation could induce cell growth inhibition and apoptosis by activating the TRAIL gene expression in tumor cells, while exhibiting no obvious toxicity to the normal lung cell line MRC-5. Theresults also demonstrate that use of an oncolytic adenovirusbased radiation-inducible gene therapy system together with12C6+tion irradiation could cause synergistic antitumor effect specifically in tumor cells but not in normal cells. The results indicate that the novel radio genetic therapy could potentiate radiation treatment by improving the safety and efficiency of monotherapy, and provide theoretical support for clinical application of combination treatment.
Estrogens as a kind of steroidal sex hormone are widely used in humans, especially quinestrol(QS),dienestrol(DS) and norethindrone(NET, 19-nor-17-alphaethinltestoster-one), which cannot be completely degraded after application. Steroidal estrogens at low concentration pulling into environment can disturb the normal biological function of wide life and thus lead to great threat to humans. So it is important to explore its degradation mechanism and its behavior in the environment. In this study, we investigated the oxidation or reduction system under gamma irradiation for reducing estrogenic activity in the aqueous solutions as well as degradation kinetics, its by-products and yield of transformation by different analytical methods such as GC–MS and HPLC. Gamma irradiation could effectively degrade estrogens in aqueous solution. The degradation reaction of estrogens could be depicted by first-order reaction kinetics. The total organic carbon of solution decreased with an increasing absorbed dose with the order: quinestrol [ norethindrone [ dienestrol. The toxicity of the three estrogens was declined after irradiation. Mono- and quadric-hydroxylated intermediates as well as organic acids were formed after gamma irradiation.
A general model for skeletal dosimetry in mice is presented. Geometrical constructs were made for four general regions in the mouse skeleton, and dose factors for90 Sr and90Y were calculated using the MCNP Monte Carlo transport code. Then, an overall skeletal dose factor for the whole skeleton was derived based on the individual values and the fraction of the total skeleton that they were assumed to represent. The whole skeleton average values were 1.56 9 10-11Gy/dis for90 Sr and 1.74 9 10-11Gy/dis for90 Y.
The sensitivity of cancer cells to radiation therapy varies based on cell cycle phase. Here we evaluated the differences between X-ray and carbon-ion irradiation with respect to cellular radiosensitivity and cancer cycle arrest in the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. The cell survival rate, cell cycle distribution and the presence of apoptosis were measured by clonogenic assay and flow cytometry. BRCA1 and p21 protein levels were analyzed by Western blot, and the levels of human telomerase reverse transcriptase(h TERT) m RNA expression and telomere length were detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results show a significant dose-dependent effects on survival rate, apoptosis and protein levels in the carbon-ion group of MCF-7 cells. Decreased proliferation was not observed at 2 Gy X-ray irradiation. There were significant differences in cellular cycle arrest, apoptosis percentages and BRCA1 and p21 protein expression between X-ray and heavy-ion groups. The results indicatedthat increasing in BRCA1 and p21 expression, and attenuation of h TERT gene expression induced by heavy-ion irradiation in MCF-7 cells might relate to mechanism of cellular radiosensitivity in G2/M arrested phase.
A novel full-digital integrator has been developed for the magnetic diagnostics in HL-2A. Based on the pipeline processing of the field-programmable gate array and high-speed PCI extensions for instrumentation platform, the digital integrator has realized octal-channel10-k Hz real-time integration and data transmission. In order to reduce the integration drift, a 24-bit analog-todigital converter and simple analog processing circuits are applied for high-precision sampling, while certain correction algorithms are used to minimize the drift. With simple and highly integrated circuits and high-performance digital processor, the digital integrator is of high stability and functional expansibility which greatly simplifies the operation procedure. The digital integrator has been tested in the plasma discharge experiments, and the experimental results have confirmed that the drift performance and accuracy of the digital integrator could fully meet the requirements of HL-2A.
To meet the needs of signal alignment between the transmitter and receiver in a quantum key distribution(QKD) system, we put forward a TDC-GPX-based synchronization scheme, which is based on high-precision time measurement. We send a low-frequency repeat optical pulse synchronized with associated quantum signals on the receiver’s side by using a time-to-digital converter(TDC)module, the time intervals between quantum signals, and synchronization signals measured and converted to corresponding temporal orders to complete the synchronization.We state the principle of the synchronization scheme in detail and then verify it in an actual QKD test bed. The test results show that our TDC-GPX-based synchronization can obtain a time resolution better than 100 ps, and the proposed scheme shows full feasibility for an actual QKD system.
We report on the temperature dependence of single-event upsets in the 215–353 K range in a 4M commercial SRAM manufactured in a 0.15-lm CMOS process,utilizing thin film transistors. The experimental results show that temperature influences the SEU cross section on the rising portion of the cross-sectional curve(such as the chlorine ion incident). SEU cross section increases 257 %when the temperature increases from 215 to 353 K. One of the possible reasons for this is that it is due to the variation in upset voltage induced by changing temperature.
With extensive use of flash-based field-programmable gate arrays(FPGAs) in military and aerospace applications, single-event effects(SEEs) of FPGAs induced by radiations have been a major concern. In this paper, we present SEE experimental study of a flash-based FPGA from Microsemi Pro ASIC3 product family. The relation between the cross section and different linear energy transfer(LET) values for the logic tiles and embedded RAM blocks is obtained. The results show that the sequential logic cross section depends not too much on operating frequency of the device. And the relationship between 0 →1 upsets(zeros) and 1 →0 upsets(ones) is different for different kinds of D-flip-flops. The devices are not sensitive to SEL up to a LET of 99.0 Me V cm2/mg.Post-beam tests show that the programming module is damaged due to the high-LET ions.
Nanomaterials and nanotechnology have great potential in the biological and biomedical field. Recent studies reveal that many nanomaterials possess antibacterial activities. While most of these studies focus on the ability of nanomaterials to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria in vitro, few of them test the effects of nanomaterials on intestinal commensal bacteria. Here, we report that Ti O2nanoparticles（10, 50 and 100 nm in size） can inhibit the growth of Drosophila intestinal commensal bacteria in vitro. This activity depends on the dosage or size, but is independent of the photocatalytic activity of Ti O2 nanoparticles. Surprisingly, dietary Ti O2 nanoparticles of the same dosage fail to display similar effects in Drosophila larvae or adults. These flies show a normal amount of intestinal commensal bacteria, as well as a normal developmental cycle, energy store, and locomotor activity. These results imply that the antibacterial effect of Ti O2 nanoparticles differs in vitro and in vivo.
The asymmetric neutron stars are investigated in a relativistic effective model with vacuum fluctuations(VF) taken into account. Due to the VF effects, various properties of the neutron matter become ‘softened’ comparing to that obtained in the FSUGold model, and the maximum mass of the enpelT neutron stars is reduced from1.71 M to 1:35M.
A numerical simulation study was performed to clarify the thermal mixing characteristics of coolant in the core bottom structure of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor(HTR). The flow field and temperature field in the hot gas chamber and the hot gas duct of the HTR were obtained based on the commercial computational fluid dynamics(CFD) program. The numerical simulation results showed that the helium flow with different temperatures in the hot gas mixing chamber and the hot gas duct mixed intensively, and the mixing rate of the temperature in the outlet of the hot gas duct reached 98 %. The results indicated many large-scale swirling flow structures and strong turbulence in the hot gas mixing chamber and the entrance of the hot gas duct, which were responsible for the excellent thermal mixing of the hot gas chamber and the hot gas duct. The calculated results showed that the temperature mixing rate of the hot gas chamber decreased only marginally with increasing Reynolds number.
This paper proposes a design of passive cooling system for CPR1000 spent fuel pool(SFP). Our design can effectively manage the SFP temperature not to exceed80 C. Then the transient analysis of the CPR1000 SFP with designed passive cooling system is carried out in station blackout(SBO) accident by the best-estimate thermal-hydraulic system code RELAP5. The simulation results show that to maintain the temperature of CPR1000 SFP under 80 C, the numbers of the SFP and air cooling heat exchangers tubes are 6627 and 19 086, respectively.The height difference between the bottom of the air cooling heat exchanger and the top of the SFP heat exchanger is3.8 m. The number of SFP heat exchanger tubes decreases as the height difference increases, while the number of the air cooling heat exchanger tubes increases. The transient analysis results show that after the SBO accident, a stable natural cooling circulation is established. The surface temperature of CPR1000 SFP increases continually until 80 C, which indicates that the design of the passive air cooling system for CPR1000 SFP is capable of removing the decay heat to maintain the temperature of the SFP around 80 C after losing the heat sink.
The activity levels of long-lived radionuclides in minerals have received more and more concern for the public health. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure the content of uranium and thorium in 60 mineral samples collected from 16 mines of seven provinces in China. The contents of uranium and thorium ranged0.17 ± 0.04 lg g-1to 15.3 ± 2.39 lg g-1, and 0.19 ± 0.04 lg g-1to 19.6 ± 7.56 lg g-1, respectively. The highest levels of U and Th contents were found in aluminum ore,whereas the lowest was found in antimony and copper ores.