β3-adrenoceptor Impacts Apoptosis in Cultured Cardiomyocytes via Activation of PI3K/Akt and p38MAPK 免费阅读 下载全文 β3-adrenoceptor(β3-AR) has been shown to promote myocardial apoptosis. However, the exact physiological role and importance of this receptor in the human myocardium, and its underlying mode of action, have not been fully elucidated. The present study aimed to determine the effects of β3-AR on the promotion of myocardial apoptosis and on norepinephrine(NE) injury. We analyzed NE-induced cardiomyocyte(CM) apoptosis by using a TUNEL and an annexin V/propidium iodide apoptosis assay. Furthermore, we investigated the NE-induced expression of the apoptosis marker genes Akt and p38 MAPK, their phosphorylated counterparts p-Akt and p-p38 MAPK, caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax. In addition, we determined the effect of a 48-h treatment with a β3-AR agonist and antagonist on expression of these marker genes. β3-AR overexpression was found to increase CM apoptosis, accompanied by an increased expression of caspase-3, bax/bcl-2, and p-p38 MAPK. In contrast, the β3-blocker reduced apoptosis of CMs and the associated elevated Akt expression. We identified a novel and potent anti-apoptosis mechanism via the PI3K/Akt pathway and a pro-apoptosis pathway mediated by p38 MAPK.
Tacrolimus Inhibits Vasoconstriction by Increasing Ca^2＋ Sparks in Rat Aorta 免费阅读 下载全文 The present study attempted to test a novel hypothesis that Ca2+ sparks play an important role in arterial relaxation induced by tacrolimus. Recorded with confocal laser scanning microscopy, tacrolimus（10 μmol/L） increased the frequency of Ca2+ sparks, which could be reversed by ryanodine（10 μmol/L）. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that tacrolimus（10 μmol/L） increased the large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ currents（BKCa） in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells（AVSMCs）, which could be blocked by ryanodine（10 μmol/L）. Furthermore, tacrolimus（10 and 50 μmol/L） reduced the contractile force induced by norepinephrine（NE） or KCl in aortic vascular smooth muscle in a concentration-dependent manner, which could be also significantly attenuated by iberiotoxin（100 nmol/L） and ryanodine（10 μmol/L） respectively. In conclusion, tacrolimus could indirectly activate BKCa currents by increasing Ca2+ sparks released from ryanodine receptors, which inhibited the NE- or KCl-induced contraction in rat aorta.
Multilayer Coating of Tetrandrine-loaded PLGA Nanoparticles： Effect of Surface Charges on Cellular Uptake Rate and Drug Release Profile 免费阅读 下载全文 The effect of surface charges on the cellular uptake rate and drug release profile of tetrandrine-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)(PLGA) nanoparticles(TPNs) was studied. Stabilizer-free nanoprecipitation method was used in this study for the synthesis of TPNs. A typical layer-by-layer approach was applied for multi-coating particles’ surface with use of poly(styrene sulfonate) sodium salt(PSS) as anionic layer and poly(allylamine hydrochloride)(PAH) as cationic layer. The modified TPNs were characterized by different physicochemical techniques such as Zeta sizer, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The drug loading efficiency, release profile and cellular uptake rate were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography and confocal laser scanning microscopy, respectively. The resultant PSS/PAH/PSS/PAH/TPNs(4 layers) exhibited spherical-shaped morphology with the average size of 160.3±5.165 nm and zeta potential of –57.8 m V. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading efficiency were 57.88% and 1.73%, respectively. Multi-layer coating of polymeric materials with different charges on particles’ surface could dramatically influence the drug release profile of TPNs(4 layers vs. 3 layers). In addition, variable layers of surface coating could also greatly affect the cellular uptake rate of TPNs in A549 cells within 8 h. Overall, by coating particles’ surface with those different charged polymers, precise control of drug release as well as cellular uptake rate can be achieved simultaneously. Thus, this approach provides a new strategy for controllable drug delivery.
Neuroprotective Effect of Peptides Extracted from Walnut（Juglans Sigilata Dode） Proteins on Aβ25-35-induced Memory Impairment in Mice 免费阅读 下载全文 Alzheimer’s disease(AD) is one of the major neurodegenerative disorders of the elderly, which is characterized by the accumulation and deposition of amyloid-beta(Aβ) peptide in human brains. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation induced by Aβ in brain are increasingly considered to be responsible for the pathogenesis of AD. The present study aimed to determine the protective effects of walnut peptides against the neurotoxicity induced by Aβ25-35 in vivo. Briefly, the AD model was induced by injecting Aβ25-35 into bilateral hippocampi of mice. The animals were treated with distilled water or walnut peptides(200, 400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) for five consecutive weeks. Spatial learning and memory abilities of mice were investigated by Morris water maze test and step-down avoidance test. To further explore the underlying mechanisms of the neuroprotectivity of walnut peptides, the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD), glutathione(GSH), acetylcholine esterase(ACh E), and the content of malondialdehyde(MDA) as well as the level of nitric oxide(NO) in the hippocampus of mice were measured by spectrophotometric method. In addition, the levels of 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine(8-OHd G), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin 1β(IL-1β) and IL-6 in the samples were determined using ELISA. The hippocampal expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase(i NOS) and nuclear factor κB(NF-κB) were evaluated by Western blot analysis. The results showed that walnut peptides supplementation effectively ameliorated the cognitive deficits and memory impairment of mice. Meanwhile, our study also revealed effective restoration of levels of antioxidant enzymes as well as inflammatory mediators with supplementation of walnut peptides(400 or 800 mg/kg). All the above findings suggested that walnut peptides may have a protective effect on AD by reducing inflammatory responses and modulating antioxidant system.
ROCK Inhibition with Fasudil Promotes Early Functional Recovery of Spinal Cord Injury in Rats by Enhancing Microglia Phagocytosis 免费阅读 下载全文 Emerging evidence indicates that microglia activation plays an important role in spinal cord injury(SCI) caused by trauma. Studies have found that inhibiting the Rho/Rho-associated protein kinase(ROCK) signaling pathway can reduce inflammatory cytokine production by microglia. In this study, Western blotting was conducted to detect ROCK2 expression after the SCI; the ROCK Activity Assay kit was used for assay of ROCK pathway activity; microglia morphology was examined using the CD11 b antibody; electron microscopy was used to detect microglia phagocytosis; TUNEL was used to detect tissue cell apoptosis; myelin staining was performed using an antibody against myelin basic protein(MBP); behavioral outcomes were evaluated according to the methods of Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan(BBB). We observed an increase in ROCK activity and microglial activation after SCI. The microglia became larger and rounder and contained myelin-like substances. Furthermore, treatment with fasudil inhibited neuronal cells apoptosis, alleviated demyelination and the formation of cavities, and improved motor recovery. The experimental evidence reveals that the ROCK inhibitor fasudil can regulate microglial activation, promote cell phagocytosis, and improve the SCI microenvironment to promote SCI repair. Thus, fasudil may be useful for the treatment of SCI.
Expression and Clinical Significance of IL-17 and IL-17 Receptor in Ulcerative Colitis 免费阅读 下载全文 The purpose of this study was to determine the expression levels of IL-17 in serum and IL-17 receptor(IL-17R) in intestinal mucosa tissue in patients with ulcerative colitis(UC) and con-trols, and evaluate their relationship with disease activity and explore the role of IL-17 in the patho-genesis of UC. A total of 36 Chinese UC patients and 60 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Serum IL-17 and C-reactive protein(CRP) levels were determined by ELISA and immu-nonephelometry, respectively. The IL-17 R m RNA expression levels were detected by quantitative PCR. Serum IL-17 levels were significantly elevated in UC patients as compared with those in the healthy controls(P<0.05). Among UC patients, serum IL-17 levels were significantly increased in active phase as compared with those in inactive phase(P<0.05), and correlated with CRP levels(r=0.578, P<0.01). IL-17 R expression levels were higher in active UC patients than in healthy con-trols(P<0.05). It was concluded that IL-17 levels were highly expressed in UC, especially in active phase, and correlated with CRP levels in UC patients.
Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-γ Agonist Pioglitazone Fails to Attenuate Renal Fibrosis Caused by Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction in Mice 免费阅读 下载全文 Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the common ending of progressive renal disease. It is worth developing new ways to stop the progress of renal fibrosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ(PPARγ) agonists have been studied to treat diabetic nephropathy, cisplatin-induced acute renal injury, ischemia reperfusion injury and adriamycin nephropathy. In this study, unilateral ureteral obstruction(UUO) was used to establish a different renal fibrosis model. PPARγ agonist pioglitazone was administrated by oral gavage and saline was used as control. At 7th and 14 th day after the operation, mice were sacrificed for fibrosis test and T lymphocytes subsets test. Unexpectedly, through MASSON staining, immunohistochemistry for α-SMA, and Western blotting for α-SMA and PDGFR-β, we found that pioglitazone failed to attenuate renal fibrosis in UUO mice. However, flow cytometry showed that pioglitazone down-regulated Th1 cells, and up-regulated Th2 cells, Th17 cells and Treg cells. But the Th17/Treg ratio had no significant change by pioglitazone. Real-time PCR results showed that TGF-β and MCP-1 had no significant changes, at the same time, CD4+ T cells associated cytokines were partially regulated by pioglitazone pretreatment. Taken together, pioglitazone failed to suppress renal fibrosis progression caused by UUO.
Biliverdin Protects against Cisplatin-induced Apoptosis of Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells 免费阅读 下载全文 Biliverdin(BV) has long been thought to be a cytotoxic metabolic waste product. It has also been demonstrated to have important cytoprotective functions during oxidative stress. The present study aimed to examine the cytoprotective effect of BV on NRK-52 E cells, a proximal tubular cell line derived from rat kidney. Cells were treated with 50 μmol/L cisplatin for 24 h(cisplatin group) or pre-treated with BV for 30 min, then with 50 μmol/L cisplatin for 24 h(cisplatin+BV group). Those given no treatment served as a control. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry and cell viability by Cell Counting Kit-8(CCK-8). The protein expressions of cleaved caspase3, Bax and Bcl-2 were assessed by Western blotting. Reactive oxygen species(ROS) levels were measured using carboxydichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate(H2DCF). The results showed that cisplatin induced the apoptosis of NRK-52 E cells, decreased cell viability, and increased the formation of ROS by upregulating the expression of cleaved caspase3 and Bax and decreasing Bcl-2 protein expression. These effects could be significantly reversed by pretreatment with BV. It was concluded that BV can protect against cisplatin-induced cell apoptosis through the anti-oxidative effects.
Correlation of Liver Enzymes with Diabetes and Pre-diabetes in Middle-aged Rural Population in China 免费阅读 下载全文 The survey aimed to explore the association of liver transaminases with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) and pre-diabetes(pre-DM) in the middle-aged rural population in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 800 middle-aged subjects who lived in rural area of central China. The 75-g oral glucose-tolerance test(OGTT) was performed. Participants were asked to complete physical examination and standard questionnaire. The serum liver transaminases(ALT and GGT), Hb A1 C and serum lipids were measured. In middle-aged rural population, the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose(IFG), impaired glucose tolerance(IGT), impaired fasting glucose combined with impaired glucose tolerance(IFG+IGT) and DM was 4.0%, 11.8%, 2.6% and 10.0%, respectively. Some measurements were higher in males than in females, such as waist hip ratio(WHR), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose(FBG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol(HDL-C), and liver enzymes(ALT and GGT). Further, we found that elevated serum GGT and ALT levels were significantly positively correlated with the prevalence of DM, independent of central obesity, serum lipid and insulin resistance(IR) in both genders. However, the correlation of GGT and ALT with pre-DM was determined by genders and characteristics of liver enzymes. Higher serum GGT was indicative of IGT in both genders. The association of serum ALT with pre-DM was significant only in female IGT group. In conclusion, our present survey shows both serum GGT and ALT are positively associated with DM, independent of the cardiovascular risk factors in both genders.
Increased BMR in Overweight and Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes may Result from an Increased Fat-free Mass 免费阅读 下载全文 The study aimed to determine the relationships between the basal metabolic rate(BMR) and body composition of overweight and obese Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM). This cross-sectional clinical study enrolled 193 Chinese adults with type 2 DM who were overweight(24 kg/m2≤BMI<28 kg/m2, n=99), or obese(BMI ≥28 kg/m2, n=94). Ninety-seven adults with normal BMIs, including 50 DM patients and 47 healthy adults, were recruited as a control group. BMR was measured by indirect calorimetry; predicted BMR was calculated according to the Schofield equation; and the relationships between BMR, body composition, and biochemical results were determined by the Pearson correlation. The results showed that obese DM patients had significantly higher BMRs than both overweight patients(P<0.05) and patients with normal BMI did(P<0.05). The measured BMR was significantly lower than the predicted BMR(P<0.05) in all groups. Obese and overweight DM patients had significantly greater weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, BMI, body surface area, body fat percentage, fat mass, and fat-free mass than patients with normal BMI. Except for waist circumference, these body composition measurements were significantly increased in obese DM patients when compared with those in overweight DM patients(P<0.05). Fat-free mass was closely correlated with BMR in both DM patients(r=0.874, P<0.01) and in healthy controls(r=0.902, P<0.01). It was concluded that overweight and obese Chinese adults with type 2 DM had increased BMRs compared with normal-weight controls, which may result from the difference in fat-free mass.
Berberine Relieves Insulin Resistance via the Cholinergic Anti-inflammatory Pathway in HepG2 Cells 免费阅读 下载全文 Berberine(BBR) is an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from Rhizoma coptidis and has been used for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) in China. The development of T2 DM is often associated with insulin resistance and impaired glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. In this study, we examined whether BBR attenuated glucose uptake dysfunction through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in Hep G2 cells. Cellular glucose uptake, quantified by the 2-[N-(7-Nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose(2-NBDG), was inhibited by 21% after Hep G2 cells were incubated with insulin(10-6 mol/L) for 36 h. Meanwhile, the expression of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor(α7n ACh R) protein was reduced without the change of acetylcholinesterase(ACh E) activity. The level of interleukin-6(IL-6) in the culture supernatant, the ratio of phosphorylated I-kappa-B kinase-β(IKKβ) Ser181/IKKβ and the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-κB) p65 protein were also increased. However, the treatment with BBR enhanced the glucose uptake, increased the expression of α7n ACh R protein and inhibited ACh E activity. These changes were also accompanied with the decrease of the ratio of p IKKβ Ser181/IKKβ, NF-κB p65 expression and IL-6 level. Taken together, these results suggest that BBR could enhance glucose uptake, and relieve insulin resistance and inflammation in Hep G2 cells. The mechanism may be related to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway and the inhibition of ACh E activity.
Distinct Expression of Chemokine-like Factor 1 in Synovium of Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis and Ankylosing Spondylitis 免费阅读 下载全文 Chemokine-like factor 1(CKLF1) is a newly cloned chemotactic cytokine with CCR4 being its functional receptor. Recent evidence demonstrates a role of CKLF1 in arthritis. The aim of this study was to quantify the expression of CKLF1 as well as assess the correlation between CKLF1 and plasma acute-phase markers. Synovium was obtained from 16 osteoarthritis(OA), 15 rheumatoid arthritis(RA) and 10 ankylosing spondylitis(AS) patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty, with other 11 patients treated for meniscal tears during sport accidents serving as normal controls. Levels of CKLF1 and CCR4 m RNA were detected by q RT-PCR, and the expression of CKLF1 was investigated by immunohistochemistry staining, subsequently analyzed with semiquantitative scores. Plasma acute-phase markers of inflammation were determined by ELISA. CKLF1 was found with a particularly up-regulated expression in synovim from AS and RA patients, and CCR4 m RNA levels increased in RA patients, not in OA or AS patients. Elevated levels of plasma markers of inflammation including CRP, ESR and Ddimer were observed in RA. Further, significantly positive correlations between relative expression levels of CKLF1 and CRP/ESR in RA patients and a positive correlation between CKLF1 and ESR in AS patients were found. There was no detectable correlation between CKLF1 and plasma D-dimer. This study confirms an increased but different level of CKLF1 in RA, OA and AS patients, all significantly higher than that in controls. Additionally, the significant positive correlations between CKLF1 levels and CRP/ESR in RA and between CKLF1 and ESR suggest that CKLF1 might contribute to the inflammation state and clinical symptoms in these rheumatic diseases. Further studies are required to investigate the utility of targeting specific CKLF1 for symptom control or disease modification in RA and AS.
Effects of BRAF^V600E Mutation on Na^＋/I^- Symporter Expression in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma 免费阅读 下载全文 Radioiodine ablation（RIA） therapy is one of the most important treatments for papillary thyroid carcinoma（PTC）, but some patients who received 131 I have radioiodine-refractory disease caused by the decreased expression of the Na+/I- symporter（NIS）. BRAFV600E E mutation is one possible risk factor that can disturb the NIS expression, but the roles are unclear in clinical practice. This research discussed the association of BRAFV600E E mutation and NIS expression in PTC tissue and the clinical implications in RIA therapy. 134 PTC samples were collected between June 2013 and June 2014 from Tongji Hospital affiliated to Tongji Medical College, and their clinical characteristics were analyzed. RT-PCR was used to detect the BRAFV600E E mutation from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, and immunohistochemistry was applied to detect the NIS expression. IPP software was used to calculate the relative expression quantity of NIS. We found that there was no significant correlation between the absorbance（A） values of NIS and clinicopathologic features in these cases, even thyroid stimulating hormone. BRAFV600E E mutation showed inhibitory effect on the NIS expression without statistically significant difference in all PTC cases（β=–0.0195, P=0.085）, but in the subgroup without hashimoto’s thyroiditis（HT）, BRAFV600E E mutation could significantly inhibit the NIS expression（β=–0.0257, P=0.046）. The results indicate that BRAFV600E E mutation is correlated with a lower expression of NIS in PTCs without HT, suggesting the radioiodine-refractory effects during RIA therapy in these patients.
Neamine Inhibits Growth of Pancreatic Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo 免费阅读 下载全文 Neamine, a non-toxic derivative of neomycin, has recently been shown to have antitumor activities in various types of cancers. However, its effect on pancreatic cancer is still unknown. The study aimed to investigate its antitumor activity on pancreatic cancer and the underlying mechanisms. MTT assay was used to observe the effect of neamine on angiogenin(ANG)-induced As PC-1 cell proliferation. Tissue microassay and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect the expression of ANG and its nuclear translocation, respectively. Tumor xenografts were established by subcutaneous inoculation of As PC-1 pancreatic cancer cells into the right flanks of nude mice, and neamine was injected subcutaneously. Immunohistochemistry was done to observe the expression of ANG, CD31 and Ki-67 in tumor xenografts. It was found that neamine blocked the nuclear translocation of ANG effectively and inhibited ANG-induced As PC-1 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Neamine had anti-tumor effects on As PC-1 xenograft models. Consistently, neamine reduced the expression levels of ANG, Ki-67 and CD31 in tumor xenografts. It was concluded that neamine may be a promising agent for treatment of pancreatic cancer.
JNK in Spinal Cord Facilitates Bone Cancer Pain in Rats through Modulation of CXCL1 免费阅读 下载全文 In patients with advanced cancer, cancer-induced bone pain(CIBP) is a severe and common problem that is difficult to manage and explain. As c-Jun N-terminal kinase(JNK) and chemokine(C-X-C motif) ligand 1(CXCL1) have been shown to participate in several chronic pain processes, we investigated the role of JNK and CXCL1 in CIBP and the relationship between them. A rat bone cancer pain model was established by intramedullary injection of Walker 256 rat gland mammary carcinoma cells into the left tibia of Sprague-Dawley rats. As a result, intramedullary injection of Walker 256 carcinoma cells induced significant bone destruction and persistent pain. Both phosphorylated JNK1(p JNK1) and p JNK2 showed time-dependent increases in the ipsilateral spinal cord from day 7 to day 18 after tumor injection. Inhibition of JNK activation by intrathecal administration of SP600125, a selective p JNK inhibitor, attenuated mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia caused by tumor inoculation. Tumor cell inoculation also induced robust CXCL1 upregulation in the ipsilateral spinal cord on day 18 after tumor injection. Inhibition of CXCL1 by intrathecal administration of CXCL1 neutralizing antibody showed a stable analgesic effect. Intrathecal administration of SP600125 reduced CXCL1 increase in the spinal cord, whereas inhibition of CXCL1 in the spinal cord showed no influence on JNK activation. Taken together, these results suggested that JNK activation in spinal cord contributed to the maintenance of CIBP, which may act through modulation of CXCL1. Inhibition of the p JNK/CXCL1 pathway may provide a new choice for treatment of CIBP.
Efficacy of Different Types of Self-expandable Stents in Carotid Artery Stenting for Carotid Bifurcation Stenosis 免费阅读 下载全文 Both open and closed loop self-expandable stents were used in carotid artery stenting(CAS) for carotid bifurcation stenosis. We sought to compare the efficacy of two types of stents in CAS. The data of 212 patients treated with CAS(42 and 170 cases implanted with closed and open loop stents, respectively) for carotid bifurcation stenosis and distal filtration protection devices were retrospectively analyzed. Between closed and open loop stents, there were no significant differences in hospitalization duration, NIHSS score before and after the treatment, stenosis at 12 th month, and cumulative incidence of primary endpoint events within 30 days or from the 31 st day to the 12 th month; while there were significant differences in hemodynamic changes and rate of difficulty in recycling distal filtration protection devices. Use of open vs. closed loop stents for carotid bifurcation stenosis seems to be associated with similar incidence of complications, except for greater rate of hemodynamic changes and lower rate of difficulty in recycling the distal filtration protection devices.
Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Catheter Drainage versus Open Laparotomy with Temporary Closure for Treatment of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Patients with Early-stage Severe Acute Pancreatitis 免费阅读 下载全文 This study aimed to examine the clinical efficacy of minimally invasive percutaneous catheter drainage(PCD) versus open laparotomy with temporary closure in the treatment of abdominal compartment syndrome(ACS) in patients with early-stage severe acute pancreatitis(SAP). Clinical data of 212 patients who underwent PCD and 61 patients who were given open laparotomy with temporary closure in our hospital over the last 10-year period were retrospectively analyzed, and outcomes were compared, including total and post-decompression intensive care unit(ICU) and hospital stays, physiological data, organ dysfunction, complications, and mortality. The results showed that the organ dysfunction scores were similar between the PCD and open laparotomy groups 72 h after decompression. In the PCD group, 134 of 212(63.2%) patients required postoperative ICU support versus 60 of 61(98.4%) in the open laparotomy group(P<0.001). Additionally, 87(41.0%) PCD patients experienced complications as compared to 49 of 61(80.3%) in the open laparotomy group(P<0.001). There were 40(18.9%) and 32(52.5%) deaths, respectively, in the PCD and open laparotomy groups(P<0.001). In conclusion, minimally invasive PCD is superior to open laparotomy with temporary closure, with fewer complications and deaths occurring in PCD group.
Microwave Ablation versus Laser Ablation in Occluding Lateral Veins in Goats 免费阅读 下载全文 Increasing number of endovenous techniques are available for the treatment of saphenous vein reflux and endovenous laser ablation(EVLA) is a frequently used method. A newly developed alternative, based on thermal therapy, is endovenous microwave ablation(EMA). This study evaluated the effect of the two procedures, in terms of coagulation and histological changes, in occluding lateral veins in goats. Twelve animals were randomized into two group, with 6 treated with EMA(EMA group), and the rest 6 with EVLA(EVLA group). Results of coagulation, including coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet activation, were assessed at three or four different time points: before, immediately after, 24 h(and 48 h) after ablation. The diameter change, a measure of efficacy, was ultrasonographically measured before and 1 month after the ablation. Histological changes were grossly and microscopically evaluated immediately, 1 and 3 month(s) after the ablation. The length of the ablated vein and preoperative average diameter were comparable between the two groups. In both EMA and EVLA groups, several coagulation parameters, fibrinolysis and platelet activation parameters only underwent slight changes. Ultrasound imaging displayed that the diameter reduction of the veins treated by EMA was significantly larger than by EVLA, in consistent with the results of macroscopic examination. Microscopic examination revealed necrosis and thickening of the vein wall, and occlusion of the lumen within 3 months after ablation in both EMA and EVLA groups. It is concluded that EMA is a minimally invasive therapy, which appears to be safe and effective for treatment of lateral veins in goats.
A Systematic Review of Animal and Clinical Studies on the Use of Scaffolds for Urethral Repair 免费阅读 下载全文 Replacing urethral tissue with functional scaffolds has been one of the challenging problems in the field of urethra reconstruction or repair over the last several decades. Various scaffold materials have been used in animal studies, but clinical studies on use of scaffolds for urethral repair are scarce. The aim of this study was to review recent animal and clinical studies on the use of different scaffolds for urethral repair, and to evaluate these scaffolds based on the evidence from these studies. Pub Med and OVID databases were searched to identify relevant studies, in conjunction with further manual search. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were systematically evaluated. Of 555 identified studies, 38 were included for analysis. It was found that in both animal and clinical studies, scaffolds seeded with cells were used for repair of large segmental defects of the urethra, such as in tubular urethroplasty. When the defect area was small, cell-free scaffolds were more likely to be applied. A lot of pre-clinical and limited clinical evidence showed that natural or artificial materials could be used as scaffolds for urethral repair. Urinary tissue engineering is still in the immature stage, and the safety, efficacy, cost-effectiveness of the scaffolds are needed for further study.
Ultrasound-guided Open Nephron Sparing Surgery without Renal Artery Occlusion for Central Renal Tumors 免费阅读 下载全文 From January 2008 to January 2013, 11 patients with central renal tumors underwent ultrasound-guided open nephron sparing surgery(ONSS) without renal artery occlusion. We removed the lesions, and the cut edges of the tumors were negative. Thus, we deduced that ultrasound-guided ONSS is suitable for the cases with obscure tumor boundary or multiple lesions. It could achieve the purpose of thoroughly removing lesions, as well as to expand the application range of nephron sparing surgery.
Low-intensity Treadmill Exercise Promotes Rat Dorsal Wound Healing 免费阅读 下载全文 In order to investigate the promoting effect of low-intensity treadmill exercise on rat dorsal wound healing and the mechanism, 20 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: exercise group(Ex) and non-exercise group(non-ex). The rats in Ex group were given treadmill exercise for one month, and those in non-ex group raised on the same conditions without treadmill exercise. Both groups received dorsal wound operation with free access to food and water. By two-week continuous observation and recording of the wound area, the healing rate was analyzed. The blood sample was collected at day 14 post-operation via cardiac puncture for determination of the number of endothelial progenitor cells(EPCs) by flow cytometry, and the concentrations of relevant cytokines such as basic fibroblast growth factor(b FGF), endothelial nitric oxide synthase(e NOS) and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) were measured by ELISA. The skin tissue around the wound was dissected to observe the vascular density under the microscope after HE staining, to detect the m RNA level of VEGFR2 and angiopoietin-1(Ang-1) receptor using RT-q PCR, and protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin(αSMA) and type collagenⅢ(ColⅢ) using Western blotting. It was found that the wound area in Ex group was smaller at the same time point than in non-ex group. The number of circulating EPCs was greater and the concentrations of vasoactive factors such as VEGF, e NOS and b FGF were higher in Ex group than in non-ex group. HE staining displayed a higher vessel density in Ex group than in non-ex group. Moreover, the m RNA expression of VEGFR2 and Ang-1 detected in the wound tissue in Ex group was higher than in non-ex group. Meanwhile, the protein expression of αSMA and Col Ⅲwas more abundant in Ex group than in non-ex group. Conclusively, the above results demonstrate Ex rats had a higher wound healing rate, suggesting low-intensity treadmill exercise accelerates wound healing. The present work may...Pituitary Suppression before Frozen Embryo Transfer Is Beneficial for Patients Suffering from Idiopathic Repeated Implantation Failure 免费阅读 下载全文 Long-term gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist(Gn RHa) administration before in vitro fertilization(IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI) in infertile women with endometriosis or adenomyosis significantly enhanced the chances of pregnancy in both fresh and frozen embryo transfer cycles. We hypothesized that long-term Gn RHa treatment might also be beneficial for the idiopathic repeated implantation failure(RIF) patients. In the 21 patients receiving Gn RHa and hormone replacement therapy(G-HRT) protocols for frozen embryo transfer, their data were compared with those of the 56 of frozen/fresh cycles they had previously undergone(previous protocols). Comparison showed that the finial results were significantly better with G-HRT protocols than with their previous protocols, with pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate, implantation rate and on-going pregnancy rate being 70%, 60%, 40% and 38% respectively with G-HRT protocols, against 17%, 11%, 6.3% and 5% with previous protocols. The results showed that hormonally controlled endometrial preparation with prior Gn RHa suppression could be used for patients who had experienced repeated failures of IVF treatment despite having morphologically optimal embryos, and the treatment may help increase the receptivity of the endometrium in these patients.
Association of Down-regulation of CD109 Expression with Up-expression of Smad7 in Pathogenesis of Psoriasis 免费阅读 下载全文 Transforming growth factor(TGF)-β signaling plays an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. CD109, a novel TGF-β co-receptor, which inhibits TGF-β signaling by enhancing Smad7-dependent degradation of TGF-β type Ⅰ receptor(TGF-β RⅠ), is abnormally expressed in psoriasis. To date, the expression of Smad7 and the correlation between CD109 and Smad7 expression in psoriasis have not been fully elucidated. This study was designed to investigate the expression and the correlation of CD109 and TGF-β signaling associated proteins in psoriasis and their roles in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Thirty-two psoriasis specimens were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for CD109, Smad7, TGF-β RⅠ and Ki67. Ten normal skin(NS) specimens served as controls. The positive expression rate(% positive cells) of Smad7 and Ki67 in psoriasis was significantly higher than in NS(62.6%±19.9% vs. 17.2%±4.4%, and 50.7%±14.3% vs. 19.5%±3.2%, respectively, P<0.001), and the expression levels of CD109 and TGF-β RⅠ were reduced significantly in psoriasis as compared with NS(8.1%±6.7% vs. 35.8%±6.7% and 27.3%±3.4% vs. 3.0%±3.4%, respectively, P<0.001). There were significantly negative correlations between CD109 and Smad7(r=-0.831, P<0.01). These findings indicated that CD109 might play a certain role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Lower expression of CD109 and TGF-β RⅠ was highly correlated with higher expression of Smad7 and Ki67, suggesting that CD109 may induce the pathogenesis of psoriasis through Smad7-mediated degradation of TGF-β RⅠ, and lead to the termination of TGF-β signaling.
Cytotoxicity of Modified Nonequilibrium Plasma with Chlorhexidine Digluconate on Primary Cultured Human Gingival Fibroblasts 免费阅读 下载全文 The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of modified nonequilibrium plasma with chlorhexidine digluconate(CHX) on human gingival fibroblasts(HGFs), and to evaluate the biosecurity of modified nonequilibrium plasma with 2% CHX as a new method of root canal treatment. Tissue samples taken from human gingiva were primarily cultured and passaged. Cells from passages 3–7 were used. HGFs were treated by modified nonequilibrium plasma with 2% CHX for 0 min(control group), 30 s, 1 min, 1.5 min, 3 min, 5 min, and 10 min, respectively, and then they were incubated for 0, 24, and 48 h. After that, cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) assay was applied to analyze the cytotoxicity of modified nonequilibrium plasma with 2% CHX on HGFs. There was no significant difference between the 0 h group treated with the modified nonequilibrium plasma for 1 min and the control group(P>0.05). However, there were significant differences between all the other treated groups and the control group(P<0.05). When treated for 1.5 min or shorter, the cell viability was obviously increased; while treated for 3 min or longer, it was obviously reduced. Moreover, when successively cultured for 0, 24, and 48 h, cell viability was decreased at first and then increased in the 3-min-treated and 5-min-treated groups. The modified nonequilibrium plasma with 2% CHX was of no influence on cell viability in 1.5 min treatment, and it could be safely used on root canal treatment.
A Systematic Review on Efficacy and Safety of Gasless Laparoscopy in the Management of Uterine Leiomyoma 免费阅读 下载全文 Uterine leiomyoma causes considerable morbidity in women. This study systematically reviewed the efficacy and safety of gasless laparoscopic myomectomy(GLM) in the management of uterine leiomyoma by comparing GLM with other minimally invasive procedures. Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, WANFANG database and China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI) were searched for studies published in English or Chinese between January 1995 and May 2015, and related references were traced. Study outcomes from randomized controlled trials and retrospective cohort studies were presented as mean difference(MD) or odds ratio(OR) with a 95% confidence interval(CI). Seventeen studies(including 1862 patients) meeting the inclusion criteria, including 934 treated with GLM and 928 treated with other minimally invasive procedures were reviewed. The results of meta-analysis revealed that GLM resulted in significantly shorter operating time [MD=–10.34, 95% CI(–18.12, –2.56), P<0.00001], shorter hospital stay [MD=–0.47, 95% CI(–0.88, –0.06)], less time to flatus [MD=–2.04, 95% CI(–2.59, –1.48)], less postoperative complications [OR=0.20, 95% CI(0.06, 0.62)] and less blood loss [MD =–30.74, 95% CI(–47.50, –13.98)]. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in duration of post-operative fever [MD=–0.52, 95% CI(–1.46, 0.42)] between the two groups. Additionally, GLM was associated with lower febrile morbidity, lower postoperative abdominal pain, and higher postoperative hemoglobin than other minimally invasive procedures for the treatment of uterine leiomyoma. In conclusion, GLM and other minimally invasive procedures are feasible, safe, and reliable for uterine leiomyoma treatment. However, available studies show that GLM is more effective and safer than other minimally invasive approaches.更多还原
Impact of Village-based Health Education of Tobacco Control on the Current Smoking Rate in Chinese Rural Areas 免费阅读 下载全文 The number of smokers in Chinese rural areas is more than 200 million, which is twice that in cities. It is very significant to carry out tobacco control interventions in rural areas. We performed this community intervention study to evaluate the efficacy of village-based health education of tobacco control on the male current smoking rate in rural areas. The population of this study was the males above 15 years old from 6 villages in rural areas. The villages were randomly assigned to intervention group or control group(3 villages in each group). Self-designed smoking questionnaire was applied. The intervention group received the village-based health education of tobacco control for one year. The primary outcome measurement was the male current smoking rate. In the baseline investigation, completed surveys were returned by 814 male residents from the control group and 831 male residents from the intervention group. The male current smoking rate in the control group and the intervention group was 61.2% and 58.5%, respectively, before intervention. There was no significant difference between these two groups(P>0.05). After one-year intervention, the current smoking rate in the intervention group(51.2%) was significantly lower than that in the control group(62.8%)(P<0.001). Our study suggested that the village-based health education of tobacco control was effective in lowering the male current smoking rate in rural areas, which could be a suitable and feasible way for tobacco control in the Chinese rural areas.