Grounded in an analysis of the unique advantages of China-Russia relations, the paper argues that the two countries have established a high level of political trust and will continue to work in concert on all fronts. It also looks back at how China entered into alliances throughout its history and the lessons it has learned from those experiences. It emphasizes that China does not deem the establishment of exclusive alliances or political blocs as a foreign policy option.
The China-US relations have experienced four rounds of transformation since the 1970 s. The recent transformation is of epoch-making significance. President Xi Jinping’s state visit to the US constitutes an important node of the transformation. The time of this transformation is relatively longer, and has been accompanied with frequent intensive and risky games. China should step up efforts to build confidence and reduce differences with the US to better control all possible crises and expand mutual cooperation. China should also strengthen its game consciousness and pay attention to the use of wisdom and skills.
With the security situation in Africa looking pessimistic since the beginning of the 21st century, the EU has adjusted its ODA policy in Africa by linking it to security issues. The EU has been carrying out a number of security-development aid projects and these have seen some positive results. However, shortcomings have been identified. Even so, it is of historic significance that African nations are working more closely with the EU in the areas of security and aid under the framework of Agenda 2063.
The importance of energy has been rooted in every aspect of human life. If we have no access to electricity and depend on traditional biomass fuels to meet household energy demands, it will mean we cannot enjoy the modern energy service. With the deepening international understanding of the issue, many countries have been promoting the practice of eliminating energy poverty, and the "universal access to affordable, clean and sustainable energy" has become one of the post 2015 UN development goals.
In October 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping and Premier Li Keqiang visited five ASEAN states. They depicted a clear blueprint for the relationship between China and Southeast Asia in the coming decades. China will more equally emphasize sovereignty, security and development interests and pay equal attention to land and maritime issues. The paper tries to summarize the features of China’s Southeast Asian policy at present and the factors that influence the relations in the future.
One of the most distinctive features of China’s recent foreign policy strategy is partnership diplomacy. It represents China’s new approach to gaining influence over the global landscape. It is aimed at avoiding rivalry and conflict and reforming international relations to a more stable and friendly state. It also indicates China’s intention to adopt a much more flexible and practical foreign policy. China will build a network of partnerships across the globe, forging a new kind of diplomacy with Chinese characteristics.
As China needs to play a more active role in global energy governance, it must create a diversified, multi-level system to enhance energy security and to alleviate environmental pressures. A China-IEA bilateral relationship exists under an Association Initiative, but a stronger bond is needed. Though it is not an IEA member, China’s massive energy needs makes it sensible that the two sides overcome existing obstacles that include OECD membership, statistical information issues and energy autonomy. In this regard an "IEA+China" might be a feasible model.