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  • Rapid growth of environmental research in China
  • Temporal variation of microbial population in a thermophilic biofilter for SO2 removal
  • The performance of a biofilter relies on the activity of microorganisms during the gas contaminant treatment process. In this study, SO2 was treated using a laboratory-scale biofilter packed with polyurethane foam cubes(PUFC), on which thermophilic desulfurization bacteria were attached. The thermophilic biofilter effectively reduced SO2 within 10 months of operation time, with a maximum elimination capacity of 48.29 g/m3/hr.Temporal shifts in the microbial population in the thermophilic biofilter were determined through polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA) sequence analysis. The substrate species and environmental conditions in the biofilter influenced the microbial population. Oxygen distribution in the PUFC was analyzed using a microelectrode. When the water-containing rate in PUFC was over 98%, the oxygen distribution presented aerobic–anoxic–aerobic states along the test route on the PUFC. The appearance of sulfate-reducing bacteria was caused by the anaerobic conditions and sulfate formation after 4 months of operation.
  • Hydroxyl carboxylate based non-phosphorus corrosion inhibition process for reclaimed water pipeline and downstream recirculating cooling water system
  • A combined process was developed to inhibit the corrosion both in the pipeline of reclaimed water supplies(PRWS) and in downstream recirculating cooling water systems(RCWS)using the reclaimed water as makeup. Hydroxyl carboxylate-based corrosion inhibitors(e.g.,gluconate, citrate, tartrate) and zinc sulfate heptahydrate, which provided Zn2+as a synergistic corrosion inhibition additive, were added prior to the PRWS when the phosphate(which could be utilized as a corrosion inhibitor) content in the reclaimed water was below 1.7 mg/L, and no additional corrosion inhibitors were required for the downstream RCWS.Satisfactory corrosion inhibition was achieved even if the RCWS was operated under the condition of high numbers of concentration cycles. The corrosion inhibition requirement was also met by the appropriate combination of PO43- and Zn2+ when the phosphate content in the reclaimed water was more than 1.7 mg/L. The process integrated not only water reclamation and reuse, and the operation of a highly concentrated RCWS, but also the comprehensive utilization of phosphate in reclaimed water and the application of non-phosphorus corrosion inhibitors. The proposed process reduced the operating cost of the PRWS and the RCWS, and lowered the environmental hazard caused by the excessive discharge of phosphate. Furthermore, larger amounts of water resources could be conserved as a result.
  • Mercury in alpine fish from four rivers in the Tibetan Plateau
  • As a global pollutant, high levels of mercury(Hg) have been found in remote ecosystem due to the long range atmospheric transport. In this study, a total of 60 fish samples were collected from four rivers across the Tibetan Plateau to study the accumulation of Hg in remote and high-altitude aquatic environment. The total Hg(THg) and methylmercury(MeHg) in fish muscles ranged from 11 to 2097 ng/g dry weight(dw)(average: 819 ng/g dw)and from 14 to 1960 ng/g dw(average: 756 ng/g dw), respectively. Significantly positive linear relationships were observed between the THg(r = 0.591, p < 0.01, n = 36) and MeHg concentrations(r = 0.473, p < 0.01, n = 36) with the trophic level of fish from Lhasa River,suggesting trophic transfer and biomagnification of Hg in this aquatic ecosystem. Moreover,the THg levels in fish had significantly positive correlations with the length(r = 0.316,p < 0.05, n = 60) and weight(r = 0.271, p < 0.05, n = 60) of fish. The high levels of Hg were attributed to the slow growth and long lifespan of the fish under this sterile and cold environment. Risk assessment revealed that the consumption of Oxygymnocypris stewartii,Schizothorax macropogon, Schizothorax waltoni, Schizopygopsis younghusbandi and Schizothorax o’connori would lead to a high exposure to Me Hg.
  • Effect of organic matter on phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge subjected to microwave hybrid pretreatment
  • Microwave(MW) hybrid processes are able to disrupt the flocculent structure of complex waste activated sludge,and help promote the recovery of phosphorus as struvite.In this study,to optimize struvite yield,(1) the characteristics of matter released in MW-hybrid treatments were compared,including MW,MW-acid,MW-alkali,MW-H2O2,and MW-H2O2- alkali.The results showed that selective release of carbon,nitrogen,phosphorus,Ca2+,and Mg2+ achieved by sludge pretreatment using MW-hybrid processes.MW-H2O2 is the recommended sludge pretreatment process for phosphorus recovery in the form of struvite.The ratio of Mg2+:NH4+-N:PO43--P was 1.2:2.9:1 in the supernatant.(2) To clarify the effects of organic matter on struvite recovery,the composition and molecular weight distribution of organic matters were analyzed.Low molecular weight COD was found to facilitate the removal rate of NH4+-N and PO43-P via crystallization,and the amorphous struvite crystals(<1 kDa) from the filtered solutions had high purity.Therefore,the present study reveals the necessity of taking into consideration the interference effect of high molecular weight organic matters during struvite crystallization from sewage sludge.
  • Estimation of bioaccessibility and potential human health risk of mercury in Chinese patent medicines
  • Mercury(Hg), mainly in cinnabar species, has been used in medicine for thousands of years in China, and worldwide concern has been raised on its toxicity. In this work, the amount of bioaccessible mercury in 16 Chinese patent medicines(CPMs) was measured by using an in vitro simulated digestion system, consisting of simulated gastric and intestinal fluid, to investigate the bioavailability of mercury in CPMs and evaluate its potential risk to human health. Total mercury and mercury in the gastrointestinal extracts were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). The levels of total Hg in 16 CPMs ranged from not detected to 11.89 mg/g, with a mean value of 1.13 mg/g, while the extractable Hg ranged from not detected to 4.37 μg/g, with a mean value of 0.42 μg/g.Mercury bioaccessibility varied significantly in the investigated CPMs, depending on the ingredient. Compared to the CPMs without cinnabar(2.5%–30.9%), the percentage of mercury in the gastrointestinal supernatants for CPMs with cinnabar was quite a bit lower(0.037%). By comparing with the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives(FAO/WHO) safety guideline, the average daily intake dose(ADD) of Hg in the medicines was then calculated to access the risk of mercury to human health from taking CPMs.
  • Distribution and assessment of heavy metals in the surface sediment of Yellow River, China
  • Large amounts of heavy metals discharged by industrial cities that are located along the middle reach of Yellow River, China have detrimental impacts on both the ecological environment and human health. In this study, fourteen surface sediment samples were taken in the middle reach of the Yellow River. Contents of Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Cd, As were measured, and the pollution status was assessed using three widely used pollution assessment methods, including the single factor index method, Nemerow pollution index method and potential ecological risk index. The concentrations of the studied heavy metals followed the order: Zn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Pb > As > Cd. Nearly 50% of sites had Cu and Cr accumulation. The concentration of Cu at the Yiluo River exceeded the secondary standard value of the Environmental quality standard for soils. Comparison of heavy metal concentrations between this study and other selected rivers indicated that Cu and Cr may be the major pollutants in our case. The single factor index indicated that many samples were at high levels of pollution for Cu and Cd; the Nemerow pollution index indicated that the Yihe River, Luohe River, Yiluo River and Huayuankou were polluted. According to the results of potential ecological risk assessment, Cd in the tributaries of Luo River, Yihe River,and Yiluo River showed high risk toward the ecosystem and human health, Cd in Huanyuankou and Cu in Yiluo River showed a middle level of risk and other samples were at a low level of risk.
  • Distinct potential aerosol masses under different scenarios of transport at a suburban site of Beijing
  • In order to evaluate the secondary aerosol formation potential at a suburban site of Beijing,in situ perturbation experiments in a potential aerosol mass(PAM) reactor were carried out in the winter of 2014.The variations of secondary aerosol formation as a function of time,OH exposure,and the concentrations of gas phase pollutants and particles were reported in this study.Two periods with distinct secondary aerosol formation potentials,marked as Period Ⅰ and Period Ⅱ,were identified during the observation.In Period Ⅰ,the secondary aerosol formation potential was high,and correlated well to the air pollutants,i.e.,SO2,NO2,and CO.The maximal secondary aerosol formation was observed with an aging time equivalent to about 3 days of atmospheric oxidation.In period Ⅱ,the secondary aerosol formation potential was low,with no obvious correlation with the air pollutants.Meanwhile,the aerosol mass decreased,instead of showing a peak,with increasing aging time.Backward trajectory analysis during the two periods confirmed that the air mass in Period Ⅰwas mainly from local sources,while it was attributed mostly to long distance transport in Period Ⅱ.The air lost its reactivity during the long transport and the particles became highly aged,resulting in a low secondary aerosol formation potential.Our experimental results indicated that the in situ measurement of the secondary aerosol formation potential could provide important information for evaluating the contributions of local emission and long distance transport to the aerosol pollution.
  • Variation of airborne quartz in air of Beijing during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Economic Leaders' Meeting
  • Quartz particles are a toxic component of airborne paniculate matter(PM).Quartz concentrations were analyzed by X-ray diffraction in eighty-seven airborne PM samples collected from three locations in Beijing before,during,and after the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation(APEC) Leaders’ Meeting in 2014.The results showed that the mean concentrations of quartz in PM samples from the two urban sites were considerably higher than those from the rural site.The quartz concentrations in samples collected after the APEC meeting,when the pollution restriction lever was lifted,were higher than those in the samples collected before or during the APEC meeting.The quartz concentrations ranged from 0.97 to 13.2 μg/m3,which were among the highest values amid those reported from other countries.The highest quartz concentration exceeded the Californian Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment reference exposure level and was close to the occupational threshold limit values for occupational settings.Moreover,a correlation analysis showed that quartz concentrations were positively correlated with concentrations of pollution parameters PM10,PM2.5,SO2 and NOx,but were negatively correlated with O3 concentration.The results suggest that the airborne quartz particles may potentially pose health risks to the general population of Beijing.
  • Effect of phosphate on heterogeneous Fenton oxidation of catechol by nano-Fe3O4: Inhibitor or stabilizer?
  • The effect of phosphate on adsorption and oxidation of catechol, 1,2-dihydroxybenzene,in a heterogeneous Fenton system was investigated. In situ attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy(ATR-FTIR) was used to monitor the surface speciation at the nano-Fe3O4 catalyst surface. The presence of phosphate decreased the removal rate of catechol and the abatement of dissolved organic compounds, as well as the decomposition of H2O2. This effect of phosphate was mainly due to its strong reaction with surface sites on the iron oxide catalyst. At neutral and acid pH, phosphate could displace the adsorbed catechol from the surface of catalyst and also could compete for surface sites with H2O2. In situ IR spectra indicated the formation of iron phosphate precipitation at the catalyst surface. The iron phosphate surface species may affect the amount of iron atoms taking part in the catalytic decomposition of H2O2 and formation of hydroxyl radicals,and inhibit the catalytic ability of Fe3O4 catalyst. Therefore, phosphate ions worked as stabilizer and inhibitor in a heterogeneous Fenton reaction at the same time, in effect leading to an increase in oxidation efficiency in this study. However, before use of phosphate as p H buffer or H2O2 stabilizer in a heterogeneous Fenton system, the possible inhibitory effect of phosphate on the actual removal of organic pollutants should be fully considered.
  • Layered sphere-shaped TiO2 capped with gold nanoparticles on structural defects and their catalysis of formaldehyde oxidation
  • We describe here a one-step method for the synthesis of Au/TiO2 nanosphere materials,which were formed by layered deposition of multiple anatase TiO2 nanosheets.The Au nanoparticles were stabilized by structural defects in each TiO2 nanosheet,including crystal steps and edges,thereby fixing the Au-TiO2 perimeter interface.Reactant transfer occurred along the gaps between these TiO2 nanosheet layers and in contact with catalytically active sites at the Au-TiO2 interface.The doped Au induced the formation of oxygen vacancies in the Au-TiO2 interface.Such vacancies are essential for generating active oxygen species(*O-) on the TiO2 surface and Ti3+ ions in bulk TiO2.These ions can then form Ti3+-O--Ti4+species,which are known to enhance the catalytic activity of formaldehyde(HCHO) oxidation.These studies on structural and oxygen vacancy defects in Au/TiO2 samples provide a theoretical foundation for the catalytic mechanism of HCHO oxidation on oxide-supported Au materials.
  • Wastewater reclamation and reuse in China:Opportunities and challenges
  • The growing water stress both in terms of water scarcity and quality deterioration promotes the development of reclaimed water as a new water resource use. This paper reviewed wastewater reuse practices in China, and the opportunities and challenges of expanding reclaimed water use were analyzed. Rapid urbanization with the increasing of water demand and wastewater discharge provides an opportunity for wastewater reuse. The vast amount of wastewater discharge and low reclaimed water production mean that wastewater reuse still has a great potential in China. Many environmental and economic benefits and successful reclamation technologies also provide opportunities for wastewater reuse. In addition, the overall strategy in China is also encouraging for wastewater reuse. In the beginning stage of wastewater reclamation and reuse, there are many significant challenges to expand wastewater reuse in China including slow pace in adopting urban wastewater reuse programs, the establishment of integrated water resources management framework and guidelines for wastewater reuse programs, incoherent water quality requirements, the limited commercial development of reclaimed water and the strengthening of public awareness and cooperation among stakeholders.
  • Interfacial mechanisms of heterogeneous Fenton reactions catalyzed by iron-based materials: A review
  • The heterogeneous Fenton reaction can generate highly reactive hydroxyl radicals(·OH)from reactions between recyclable solid catalysts and H2O2 at acidic or even circumneutral pH.Hence,it can effectively oxidize refractory organics in water or soils and has become a promising environmentally friendly treatment technology.Due to the complex reaction system,the mechanism behind heterogeneous Fenton reactions remains unresolved but fascinating,and is crucial for understanding Fenton chemistry and the development and application of efficient heterogeneous Fenton technologies.Iron-based materials usually possess high catalytic activity,low cost,negligible toxicity and easy recovery,and are a superior type of heterogeneous Fenton catalysts.Therefore,this article reviews the fundamental but important interfacial mechanisms of heterogeneous Fenton reactions catalyzed by iron-based materials..OH,hydroperoxyl radicals/superoxide anions(HO2./O2-.)and high-valent iron are the three main types of reactive oxygen species(ROS),with different oxidation reactivity and selectivity.Based on the mechanisms of ROS generation,the interfacial mechanisms of heterogeneous Fenton systems can be classified as the homogeneous Fenton mechanism induced by surface-leached iron,the heterogeneous catalysis mechanism,and the heterogeneous reaction-induced homogeneous mechanism.Different heterogeneous Fenton systems catalyzed by characteristic iron-based materials are comprehensively reviewed.Finally,related future research directions are also suggested.
  • The molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the arsenic mining impacted sites in Hunan Province of China
  • Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi(AMF) can establish a mutualistic association with most terrestrial plants even in heavy metal contaminated environments. It has been documented that high concentrations of toxic metals, such as arsenic(As) in soil could adversely affect the diversity and function of AMF. However, there are still gaps in understanding the community composition of AMF under long-term As contaminations. In the present study, six sampling sites with different As concentrations were selected in the Realgar mining area in Hunan Province of China. The AMF biodiversity in the rhizosphere soils of the dominant plant species was investigated by sequencing the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA(SSU rR NA) gene fragments using 454-pyrosequencing technique. A total of 11 AMF genera were identified,namely Rhizophagus, Glomus, Funneliformis, Acaulospora, Diversispora, Claroideoglomus, Scutellopora,Gigaspora, Ambispora, Praglomus, and Archaeospora, among which Glomus, Rhizophagus, and Claroideoglomus clarodeum were detected in all sampling sites, and Glomus was the dominant AMF genus in the Realgar mining area. Redundancy analysis indicated that soil pH, total As and Cd concentrations were the main factors influencing AMF community structure. There was a negative correlation between the AMF species richness and the total As concentration in the soil,but no significant correlation between the Shannon–Wiener index of the AMF and plants. Our study showed that high As concentrations can exert a selective effect on the AMF populations.
  • Performance of pond–wetland complexes as a preliminary processor of drinking water sources
  • Shijiuyang Constructed Wetland(110 hm~2) is a drinking water source treatment wetland with primary structural units of ponds and plant-bed/ditch systems. The wetland can process about 250,000 tonnes of source water in the Xincheng River every day and supplies raw water for Shijiuyang Drinking Water Plant. Daily data for 28 months indicated that the major water quality indexes of source water had been improved by one grade. The percentage increase for dissolved oxygen and the removal rates of ammonia nitrogen, iron and manganese were 73.63%, 38.86%, 35.64%, and 22.14% respectively. The treatment performance weight of ponds and plant-bed/ditch systems was roughly equal but they treated different pollutants preferentially. Most water quality indexes had better treatment efficacy with increasing temperature and inlet concentrations. These results revealed that the pond–wetland complexes exhibited strong buffering capacity for source water quality improvement. The treatment cost of Shijiuyang Drinking Water Plant was reduced by about 30.3%. Regional rainfall significantly determined the external river water levels and adversely deteriorated the inlet water quality, thus suggesting that the "hidden" diffuse pollution in the multitudinous stream branches as well as their catchments should be the controlling emphases for river source water protection in the future. The combination of pond and plant-bed/ditch systems provides a successful paradigm for drinking water source pretreatment. Three other drinking water source treatment wetlands with ponds and plant-bed/ditch systems are in operation or construction in the stream networks of the Yangtze River Delta and more people will be benefited.
  • Recent progress in detection of mercury using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy — A review
  • Concerns over exposure to mercury have motivated the exploration of cost-effective,rapid,and reliable method for monitoring Hg2+ in the environment.Recently,surface-enhanced Raman scattering(SERS) has become a promising alternative method for Hg2+ analysis.SERS is a spectroscopic technique which combines modern laser spectroscopy with the optical properties of nano-sized noble metal structures,resulting in substantially increased Raman signals.When Hg2+ is in a close contact with metallic nanostructures,the SERS effect provides unique structural information together with ultrasensitive detection limits.This review introduces the principles and contemporary approaches of SERS-based Hg2+detection.In addition,the perspective and challenges are briefly discussed.
  • Development and preliminary application of a method to assess river ecological status in the Hai River Basin,north China
  • The river ecosystem in the Hai River Basin(HRB), an important economic region in China, is seriously degraded. With the aim of river restoration in the HRB, we developed a method to assess the river’s ecological status and conducted a preliminary application of the method.The established method was a predictive model, which used macroinvertebrates as indicator organisms. The river’s ecological status was determined by calculating the ratio of observed to expected values(O/E). The method included ecoregionalization according to natural factors, and the selection of reference sites based on combinations of habitat quality and macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate taxa included Insecta,Crustacea, Gastropoda, and Oligochaeta, with 39 families and 95 genera identified in the HRB. The HRB communities were dominated by pollution tolerant taxa, such as Lymnaeidae, Chironomus, Limnodrilus, Glyptotendipes, and Tubifex. The average Shannon–Wiener index was 1.40 ± 0.5, indicating a low biodiversity. In the river length of 3.31 × 10~4 km, 55% of the sites were designated poor, with a bad ecological status. Among nine secondary river systems, Luan and Zi-ya had the best and worst river conditions,respectively. Only 17 reference site groups were selected for river management in the 41 ecoregions examined. This study lays the foundation for river restoration and related research in the HRB, and we anticipate further developments of this novel method.
  • Copper pollution decreases the resistance of soil microbial community to subsequent dry–rewetting disturbance
  • Dry–rewetting(DW) disturbance frequently occurs in soils due to rainfall and irrigation, and the frequency of DW cycles might exert significant influences on soil microbial communities and their mediated functions. However, how microorganisms respond to DW alternations in soils with a history of heavy metal pollution remains largely unknown.Here, soil laboratory microcosms were constructed to explore the impacts of ten DW cycles on the soil microbial communities in two contrasting soils(fluvo-aquic soil and red soil)under three copper concentrations(zero, medium and high). Results showed that the fluctuations of substrate induced respiration(SIR) decreased with repeated cycles of DW alternation. Furthermore, the resistance values of substrate induced respiration(RS-SIR)were highest in non-copper-stressed(zero) soils. Structural equation model(SEM) analysis ascertained that the shifts of bacterial communities determined the changes of RS-SIR in both soils. The rate of bacterial community variance was significantly lower in noncopper-stressed soil compared to the other two copper-stressed(medium and high) soils,which might lead to the higher RS-SIR in the fluvo-aquic soil. As for the red soil, the substantial increase of the dominant group WPS-2 after DW disturbance might result in the low RS-SIR in the high copper-stressed soil. Moreover, in both soils, the bacterial diversity was highest in non-copper-stressed soils. Our results revealed that initial copper stress could decrease the resistance of soil microbial community structure and function to subsequent DW disturbance.
  • Development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against human aryl hydrocarbon receptor
  • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor(Ah R), a ligand-dependent nuclear receptor, is involved in a diverse spectrum of biological and toxicological effects. Due to the lack of three dimensional(3D)crystal or nuclear magnetic resonance structure, the mechanisms of these complex effects of AhR remain to be unclear. Also, commercial monoclonal antibodies(mA bs) against human AhR protein(h Ah R), as alternative immunological tools, are very limited. Thus, in order to provide more tools for further studies on h Ah R, we prepared two m Abs(1D6 and 4A6) against h Ah R. The two newly generated m Abs specifically bound to amino acids 484–508(located in transcription activation domain) and amino acids 201–215(located in Per-ARNT-Sim domain)of h Ah R, respectively. These epitopes were new as compared with those of commercial m Abs.The m Abs were also characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blot,immunoprecipitation and indirect immunofluorescence assay in different cell lines. The results showed that the two m Abs could recognize the linearized AhR s in six different human cell lines and a rat hepatoma cell line, as well as the h Ah R with native conformations. We concluded that the newly generated m Abs could be employed in AhR-based bioassays for analysis of environmental contaminants, and held great potential for further revealing the spatial structure of AhR and its biological functions in future studies.
  • Simultaneous denitrification and denitrifying phosphorus removal in a full-scale anoxic–oxic process without internal recycle treating low strength wastewater
  • Performance of a full-scale anoxic-oxic activated sludge treatment plant(4.0×10~5 m~3/day for the first-stage project) was followed during a year.The plant performed well for the removal of carbon,nitrogen and phosphorus in the process of treating domestic wastewater within a temperature range of 10.8℃ to 30.5℃.Mass balance calculations indicated that COD utilization mainly occurred in the anoxic phase,accounting for 88.2% of total COD removal.Ammonia nitrogen removal occurred 13.71% in the anoxic zones and 78.77% in the aerobic zones.The contribution of anoxic zones to total nitrogen(TN) removal was 57.41%.Results indicated that nitrogen elimination in the oxic tanks was mainly contributed by simultaneous nitrification and denitrification(SND).The reduction of phosphorus mainly took place in the oxic zones,51.45% of the total removal.Denitrifying phosphorus removal was achieved biologically by 11.29%.Practical experience proved that adaptability to gradually changing temperature of the microbial populations was important to maintain the plant overall stability.Sudden changes in temperature did not cause paralysis of the system just lower removal efficiency,which could be explained by functional redundancy of microorganisms that may compensate the adverse effects of temperature changes to a certain degree.Anoxic-oxic process without internal recycling has great potential to treat low strength wastewater(i.e.,TN < 35 mg/L) as well as reducing operation costs.
  • Chlorination pattern effect on thermodynamic parameters and environmental degradability for C10-SCCPs: Quantum chemical calculation based on virtual combinational library
  • Short-chain chlorinated paraffins(SCCPs) are still controversial candidates for inclusion in the Stockholm Convention.The inherent mixture nature of SCCPs makes it rather difficult to explore their environmental behaviors.A virtual molecule library of 42,720 C10-SCCP congeners covering the full structure spectrum was constructed.We explored the structural effects on the thermodynamic parameters and environmental degradability of C10-SCCPs through semi-empirical quantum chemical calculations.The thermodynamic properties were acquired using the AM1 method,and frontier molecular orbital analysis was carried out to obtain the EHOMO,ELUMO and ELUMO-EHOMO for degradability exploration at the same level.The influence of the chlorination degree(NCl on the relative stability and environmental degradation was elucidated.A novel structural descriptor,μ,was proposed to measure the dispersion of the chlorine atoms within a molecule.There were significant correlations between thermodynamic values and NCl,while the reported NCl-dependent pollution profile of C10-SCCPs in environmental samples was basically consistent with the predicted order of formation stability of C10-SCCP congeners.In addition,isomers with largeμ showed higher relative stability than those with small μ.This could be further verified by the relationship between μ and the reactivity of nucleophilic substitution and · OH attack respectively.The C10-SCCP congeners with less Cl substitution and lower dispersion degree are susceptible to environmental degradation via nucleophilic substitution and hydroxyl radical attack,while direct photolysis of C10-SCCP congeners cannot readily occur due to the large ELUMO-EHOMO values.The chlorination effect and the conclusions were further checked with appropriate density functional theory(DFT) calculations.
  • Efficient treatment of azo dye containing wastewater in a hybrid acidogenic bioreactor stimulated by biocatalyzed electrolysis
  • In this study, a novel scaled-up hybrid acidogenic bioreactor(HAB) was designed and adopted to evaluate the performance of azo dye(acid red G, ARG) containing wastewater treatment. Principally, HAB is an acidogenic bioreactor coupled with a biocatalyzed electrolysis module. The effects of hydraulic retention time(HRT) and ARG loading rate on the performance of HAB were investigated. In addition, the influent was switched from synthetic wastewater to domestic wastewater to examine the key parameters for the application of HAB. The results showed that the introduction of the biocatalyzed electrolysis module could enhance anoxic decolorization and COD(chemical oxygen demand) removal. The combined process of HAB-CASS presented superior performance compared to a control system without biocatalyzed electrolysis(AB-CASS). When the influent was switched to domestic wastewater, with an environment having more balanced nutrients and diverse organic matters, the ARG, COD and nitrogen removal efficiencies of HAB-CASS were further improved, reaching 73.3% ± 2.5%, 86.2% ± 3.8% and 93.5% ± 1.6% at HRT of 6 hr, respectively, which were much higher than those of AB-CASS(61.1% ± 4.7%,75.4% ± 5.0% and 82.1% ± 2.1%, respectively). Moreover, larger TCV/TV(total cathode volume/total volume) for HAB led to higher current and ARG removal. The ARG removal efficiency and current at TCV/TV of 0.15 were 39.2% ± 3.7% and 28.30 ± 1.48 m A,respectively. They were significantly increased to 62.1% ± 2.0% and 34.55 ± 0.83 m A at TCV/TV of 0.25. These results show that HAB system could be used to effectively treat real wastewater.
  • Modifying glass fiber surface with grafting acrylamide by UV-grafting copolymerization for preparation of glass fiber reinforced PVDF composite membrane
  • Experimental design and response surface methodology(RSM) were used to optimize the modification of conditions for glass surface grafting with acrylamide(AM) monomer for preparation of a glass fiber reinforced poly(vinylidene fluoride)(PVDF) composite membrane(GFRP-CM). The factors considered for experimental design were the UV(ultraviolet)-irradiation time, the concentrations of the initiator and solvent, and the kinds and concentrations of the silane coupling agent. The optimum operating conditions determined were UV-irradiation time of 25 min, an initiator concentration of 0–0.25 wt.%,solvent of N-Dimethylacetamide(DMAC), and silane coupling agent KH570 with a concentration of 7 wt.%. The obtained optimal parameters were located in the valid region and the experimental confirmation tests conducted showed good accordance between predicted and experimental values. Under these optimal conditions, the water absorption of the grafted modified glass fiber was improved from 13.6% to 23%; the tensile strength was enhanced and the peeling strength of the glass fiber reinforced PVDF composite membrane was improved by 23.7% and 32.6% with an AM concentration at 1 wt.% and 2 wt.%. The surface composition and microstructure of AM grafted glass fiber were studied via several techniques including Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy(FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance(FTIR-ATR) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDX). The analysis of the EDX and FTIR-ATR results confirmed that the AM was grafted to the glass fiber successfully by detecting and proving the existence of nitrogen atoms in the GFRP-CM.
  • Chronic TCDD exposure results in the dysregulation of gene expression in splenic B-lymphocytes and in the impairments in T-cell and B-cell differentiation in mouse model
  • 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(TCDD) exposure in humans is associated with marked immune suppressions and increased incidence of lymphoblastic diseases.To elucidate mechanisms of impairments in humoral immune responses,we used a murine model.Following a 20-week administration of low doses of TCDD,we observed severely reduced antibody titers,dramatically decreased number of splenic Th1 and Th2 cells and an increase in CD19~+ B cells.Transcriptional profiling of CD19~+ B cells showed that markers of pre-B cells were significantly elevated,indicating delayed B cell maturation.These changes in B cells were accompanied by decreases of T helper cell numbers and reduced IgM and IgG titers.A transcriptome analysis of splenic B cells followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis(IPA) revealed a set of differentially expressed genes known to play roles in tumorigenesis,cell-proliferation and cell-migration.The most up-regulated transcript gene was Eph receptor A2(EphA2),a known oncogene,and the most down-regulated transcript was ZBTB16 that codes for a negative transcriptional regulator important in epigenetic chromatin remodeling.IPA identified cAMP-responsive element modulator(CREM) and cAMP-responsive element binding protein 1(CREBl) as top upstream regulators.Consistently,a MAPPER promoter database analysis showed that all top dysregulated genes had CREM and/or CREBl binding sites in their promoter regions.In summary,our data showed that chronic TCDD exposure in mice caused suppressed humoral immunity accompanied with profound dysregulation of gene expression in splenic B-lymphocytes,likely through cAMP-dependent pathways.This dysregulation resulted in impairments in T-cell and B-cell differentiation and activation of the tumorigenic transcription program.
  • Urban and rural transport of semivolatile organic compounds at regional scale: A multimedia model approach
  • Urban areas are generally regarded as major sources of some semivolatile organic compounds and other persistent organic pollutants(POPs) to the surrounding regions. Huge differences in contaminant emissions between urban and rural areas directly affect their fate in environmental media. Little is known about POPs behavior between urban and rural areas at a regional scale. A spatially resolved Berkeley-Trent-Urban-Rural Fate Model(BETR-UR) was designed by coupling land cover information to simulate the transport of POPs between urban and rural areas, and the Bohai Rim was used as a case study to estimate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon(PAH) fate. The processes of contaminant fate including emission, inter-compartmental transfer, advection and degradation in urban and rural areas were simulated in the model. Simulated PAH concentrations in environmental media of urban and rural areas were very close to measured values. The model accuracy was highly improved, with the average absolute relative error for PAH concentrations reduced from 37% to 3% compared with unimproved model results. PAH concentrations in urban soil and air were considerably higher than those in rural areas. Sensitivity analysis showed temperature was the most influential parameter for Phen rather than for Bap, whose fate was more influenced by emission rate, compartment dimension, transport velocity and chemical persistence. Uncertainty analysis indicated modeled results in urban media had higher uncertainty than those in rural areas due to larger variations of emissions in urban areas. The differences in urban and rural areas provided us with valuable guidance on policy setting for urban–rural POP control.
  • Performance and recent improvement in microbial fuel cells for simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal: A review
  • Microbial fuel cells(MFCs) have become a promising technology for wastewater treatment accompanying electricity generation. Carbon and nitrogen removal can be achieved by utilizing the electron transfer between the anode and cathode in an MFC. However,large-scale power production and high removal efficiency must be achieved at a low cost to make MFCs practical and economically competitive in the future. This article reviews the principles, feasibility and bottlenecks of MFCs for simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal, the recent advances and prospective strategies for performance improvement, as well as the involved microbes and electron transfer mechanisms.
  • Arsenic retention and transport behavior in the presence of typical anionic and nonionic surfactants
  • The massive production and wide use of surfactants have resulted in a large amount of surfactant residuals being discharged into the environment,which could have an impact on arsenic behavior.In the present study,the influence of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate(SDBS) and nonionic surfactant polyethylene glycol octylphenyl ether(Triton X-100) on arsenic behavior was investigated in batch and column tests.The presence of SDBS and Triton X-100 reduced arsenic retention onto ferrihydrite(FH),enhanced arsenic transport through FH coated sand(FH-sand) columns and promoted arsenic release from the FH surface.With coexisting surfactants in solution,the equilibrium adsorbed amount of arsenic on FH decreased by up to 29.7% and the adsorption rate decreased by up to 52.3%.Pre-coating with surfactants caused a decrease in the adsorbed amount and adsorption rate of arsenic by up to 15.1% and 58.3%,respectively.Because of the adsorption attenuation caused by surfactants,breakthrough of As(Ⅴ) and As(Ⅲ) with SDBS in columns packed with FH-sand was 23.8% and 14.3%faster than that in those without SDBS,respectively.In columns packed with SDBS-coated FH-sand,transport of arsenic was enhanced to a greater extent.Breakthrough of As(Ⅴ) and As(Ⅲ) was 52.4% and 43.8% faster and the cumulative retention amount was 44.5% and 57.3% less than that in pure FH-sand column systems,respectively.Mobilization of arsenic by surfactants increased with the increase of the initial adsorbed amount of arsenic.The cumulative release amount of As(Ⅴ) and As(Ⅲ) from the packed column reached 10.8% and 36.0%,respectively.
  • Quantifying the characteristics of particulate matters captured by urban plants using an automatic approach
  • It is widely accepted that urban plant leaves can capture airborne particles. Previous studies on the particle capture capacity of plant leaves have mostly focused on particle mass and/or size distribution. Fewer studies, however, have examined the particle density, and the size and shape characteristics of particles, which may have important implications for evaluating the particle capture efficiency of plants, and identifying the particle sources. In addition, the role of different vegetation types is as yet unclear. Here, we chose three species of different vegetation types, and firstly applied an object-based classification approach to automatically identify the particles from scanning electron microscope(SEM)micrographs. We then quantified the particle capture efficiency, and the major sources of particles were identified. We found(1) Rosa xanthina Lindl(shrub species) had greater retention efficiency than Broussonetia papyrifera(broadleaf species) and Pinus bungeana Zucc.(coniferous species), in terms of particle number and particle area cover.(2) 97.9% of the identified particles had diameter ≤10 μm, and 67.1% of them had diameter ≤2.5 μm. 89.8% of the particles had smooth boundaries, with 23.4% of them being nearly spherical.(3) 32.4%–74.1% of the particles were generated from bare soil and construction activities, and 15.5%–23.0% were mainly from vehicle exhaust and cooking fumes.
  • Rapid growth of environmental research in China(Guibin Jiang;Chunxia Wang;X.Chris Le)
    Temporal variation of microbial population in a thermophilic biofilter for SO2 removal(Jingying Zhang;Lin Li;Junxin Liu)
    Hydroxyl carboxylate based non-phosphorus corrosion inhibition process for reclaimed water pipeline and downstream recirculating cooling water system(Jun Wang[1,2];Dong Wang[1,3];Deyin Hou[1,2])
    Mercury in alpine fish from four rivers in the Tibetan Plateau(Junjuan Shao;Jianbo Shi[1,2];Bu Duo;Chengbin Liu;Yan Gao;Jianjie Fu;Ruiqiang Yang;Guibin Jiang)
    Effect of organic matter on phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge subjected to microwave hybrid pretreatment(Yawei Wang;Qingcong Xiao[1,2,3];Hui Zhong;Xiang Zheng;Yuansong Wei)
    Estimation of bioaccessibility and potential human health risk of mercury in Chinese patent medicines(Lihong Liu;Yu Zhang;Zhaojun Yun;Bin He;Guibin Jiang)
    Distribution and assessment of heavy metals in the surface sediment of Yellow River, China(Nan Yan;Wenbin Liu;Huiting Xie;Lirong Gao;Ying Han;Mengjing Wang;Haifeng Li)
    Distinct potential aerosol masses under different scenarios of transport at a suburban site of Beijing(Biwu Chu;Yongchun Liu;Qingxin Ma;Jinzhu Ma;Hong He;Gang Wang;Shuiyuan Cheng;Xinming Wang)
    Variation of airborne quartz in air of Beijing during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Economic Leaders' Meeting(Gang Li;Yingming Li;Hongxing Zhang;Honghua Li;Guanjun Gao;Qian Zhou;Yuan Gao;Wenjuan Li;Huizhong Sun;Xiaoke Wang;Qinghua Zhang[1,3])
    Effect of phosphate on heterogeneous Fenton oxidation of catechol by nano-Fe3O4: Inhibitor or stabilizer?(Xiaofang Yang;Jie He[1,2];Zhongxi Sun;Allan Holmgren;Dongsheng Wang[1,2])
    Layered sphere-shaped TiO2 capped with gold nanoparticles on structural defects and their catalysis of formaldehyde oxidation(Chunyan Ma;Guanglong Pang;Guangzhi He;Yang Li;Chi He;Zhengping Hao)
    Wastewater reclamation and reuse in China:Opportunities and challenges(Sidan Lyu[1,2];Weiping Chen;Weiling Zhang;Yupeng Fan;Wentao Jiao)
    Interfacial mechanisms of heterogeneous Fenton reactions catalyzed by iron-based materials: A review(Jie He[1,2];Xiaofang Yang;Bin Men;Dongsheng Wang)
    The molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the arsenic mining impacted sites in Hunan Province of China(Yuqing Sun[1,2];Xin Zhang;Zhaoxiang Wu[1,2];Yajun Hu[1,2];Songlin Wu[1,2];Baodong Chen)
    Performance of pond–wetland complexes as a preliminary processor of drinking water sources(Weidong Wang;Jun Zheng;Zhongqiong Wang;Rongbin Zhang;Qinghua Chen;Xinfeng Yu;Chengqing Yin)
    Recent progress in detection of mercury using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy — A review(Zhenli Sun;Jingjing Du;Chuanyong Jing)
    Development and preliminary application of a method to assess river ecological status in the Hai River Basin,north China(Baoqing Shan;Yuekui Ding[1,2];Yu Zhao[1,2])
    Copper pollution decreases the resistance of soil microbial community to subsequent dry–rewetting disturbance(Jing Li;Jun-Tao Wang;Hang-Wei Hu;Yi-Bing Ma;Li-Mei Zhang;Ji-Zheng He[1,2])
    Development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against human aryl hydrocarbon receptor(Wenjing Tian;Xinhui Pei;Heidi Qunhui Xie;Sherry Li Xu;Jijing Tian;Qin Hu;Haiming Xu;Yangsheng Chen;Hualing Fu;Zhengyu Cao;Bin Zhao)
    Simultaneous denitrification and denitrifying phosphorus removal in a full-scale anoxic–oxic process without internal recycle treating low strength wastewater(Qibin Wang;Qiuwen Chen[1,2])
    Chlorination pattern effect on thermodynamic parameters and environmental degradability for C10-SCCPs: Quantum chemical calculation based on virtual combinational library(Yuzhen Sun;Wenxiao Pan;Yuan Lin;Jianjie Fu;Aiqian Zhang)
    Efficient treatment of azo dye containing wastewater in a hybrid acidogenic bioreactor stimulated by biocatalyzed electrolysis(Hong-Cheng Wang;Hao-Yi Cheng;Shu-Sen Wang;Dan Cui;Jing-Long Han;Ya-Ping Hu;Shi-Gang Su;Ai-Jie Wang)
    Modifying glass fiber surface with grafting acrylamide by UV-grafting copolymerization for preparation of glass fiber reinforced PVDF composite membrane(Nan Luo[1,2];Hui Zhong[1,2];Min Yang[1,2];Xing Yuan[1,2];Yaobo Fan[1,2])
    Chronic TCDD exposure results in the dysregulation of gene expression in splenic B-lymphocytes and in the impairments in T-cell and B-cell differentiation in mouse model(Yu Feng;Jijing Tian;Irina Krylova;Tuan Xu;Heidi Qunhui Xie;Tai L.Guo;Bin Zhao)
    Urban and rural transport of semivolatile organic compounds at regional scale: A multimedia model approach(Shuai Song;Chao Su;Yonglong Lu;Tieyu Wang;Yueqing Zhang;Shijie Liu)
    Performance and recent improvement in microbial fuel cells for simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal: A review(Haishu Sun;Shengjun Xu;Guoqiang Zhuang;Xuliang Zhuang)
    Arsenic retention and transport behavior in the presence of typical anionic and nonionic surfactants(Chuan Liang;Xianliang Wang[2,3];Xianjia Peng)
    Quantifying the characteristics of particulate matters captured by urban plants using an automatic approach(Jingli Yan[1,2];Lin Lin[1,2];Weiqi Zhou;Lijian Han;Keming Ma)
    《环境科学学报:英文版》封面

    主管单位:中国科学院

    主办单位:中国科学院生态环境科学研究中心

    主  编:汤鸿霄

    地  址:北京2871信箱双清路18号

    邮政编码:100085

    电  话:010-62920553

    电子邮件:jesc@263.net

    国际标准刊号:issn 1001-0742

    国内统一刊号:cn 11-2629/x

    邮发代号:2-580

    单  价:70.00

    定  价:840.00


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