Vector Dominating Multi-objective Evolution Algorithm for Aerodynamic-Structure Integrative Design of Wind Turbine Blade 免费阅读 下载全文 A novel multi-objective optimization algorithm incorporating vector method and evolution strategies,referred as vector dominant multi-objective evolutionary algorithm(VD-MOEA),is developed and applied to the aerodynamic-structural integrative design of wind turbine blades.A set of virtual vectors are elaborately constructed,guiding population to fast move forward to the Pareto optimal front and dominating the distribution uniformity with high efficiency.In comparison to conventional evolution algorithms,VD-MOEA displays dramatic improvement of algorithm performance in both convergence and diversity preservation when handling complex problems of multi-variables,multi-objectives and multi-constraints.As an example,a 1.5 MW wind turbine blade is subsequently designed taking the maximum annual energy production,the minimum blade mass,and the minimum blade root thrust as the optimization objectives.The results show that the Pareto optimal set can be obtained in one single simulation run and that the obtained solutions in the optimal set are distributed quite uniformly,maximally maintaining the population diversity.The efficiency of VD-MOEA has been elevated by two orders of magnitude compared with the classical NSGA-II.This provides a reliable high-performance optimization approach for the aerodynamic-structural integrative design of wind turbine blade.
Modeling Methods and Test Verification of Root Insert Contact Interface for Wind Turbine Blade 免费阅读 下载全文 Two modeling methods of the root insert for wind turbine blade are presented,i.e.,the local mesh optimization method(LMOM)and the global modeling method(GMM).Based on the optimized mesh of the local model for the metal contact interface,LMOM is proposed to analyze the load path and stress distribution characteristics,while GMM is used to calculate and analyze the stress distribution characteristics of the resin layer established between the bushing and composite layers of root insert.To validate the GMM,a tension test is carried out.The result successfully shows that the shear strain expresses a similar strain distribution tendency with the GMM′s results.
Aeroelastic Responses for Wind Turbine Blade Considering Bend-Twist Coupled Effect 免费阅读 下载全文 The Euler-Bernoulli beam model coupled with the sectional properties obtained by the variational asymptotic beam sectional analysis(VABS)method is used to construct the blade structure model.Combined the aerodynamic loads calculated by unsteady blade element momentum model with a dynamic inflow and the dynamic stall correction,the dynamics equations of blade are built.The Newmark implicit algorithm is used to solve the dynamics equations.Results of the sectional properties and blade structure model are compared with the multi-cell beam method and the ANSYS using shell elements.It is proved that the method is effective with high precision.Moreover,the effects on the aeroelastic response caused by bend-twist coupling are analyzed.Torsional direction is deflected toward the upwind direction as a result of coupling effects.The aerodynamic loads and the displacement are reduced.
Large-Eddy Simulation of Wind Turbine Wake and Aerodynamic Performance with Actuator Line Method 免费阅读 下载全文 A hybrid method is presented to numerically investigate the wind turbine aerodynamic characteristics.The wind turbine blade is replaced by an actuator line model.Turbulence is treated using a dynamic one-equation subgrid-scale model in large eddy simulation.Detailed information on the basic characteristics of the wind turbine wake is obtained and discussed.The rotor aerodynamic performance agrees well with the measurements.The actuator line method large-eddy simulation(ALM-LES)technique demonstrates its high potential in providing accurate load prediction and high resolution of turbulent fluctuations in the wind turbine wakes and the interactions within a feasible cost.
Hybrid Cartesian Grid Method for Moving Boundary Problems 免费阅读 下载全文 A hybrid Cartesian structured grid method is proposed for solving moving boundary unsteady problems.The near body region is discretized by using the body-fitted structured grids,while the remaining computational domain is tessellated with the generated Cartesian grids.As the body moves,the structured grids move with the body and the outer boundaries of inside grids are used to generate new holes in the outside adaptive Cartesian grid to facilitate data communication.By using the alternating digital tree(ADT)algorithm,the computational time of hole-cutting and identification of donor cells can be reduced significantly.A compressible solver for unsteady flow problems is developed.A cell-centered,second-order accurate finite volume method is employed in spatial discretization and an implicit dual-time stepping low-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel(LU-SGS)approach is employed in temporal discretization.Geometrybased adaptation is used during unsteady simulation time steps when boundary moves and the flow solution is interpolated from the old Cartesian grids to the new one with inverse distance weighting interpolation formula.Both laminar and turbulent unsteady cases are tested to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.Then,a 2-D store separation problem is simulated.The result shows that the hybrid Cartesian grid method can handle the unsteady flow problems involving large-scale moving boundaries.
Numerical Simulation of Wind Turbine Wake Characteristics in Uniform Inflow 免费阅读 下载全文 Flow field around a two-bladed horizontal-axis wind turbine(HAWT)is simulated at various tip speed ratios to investigate its wake characteristics by analyzing the tip and root vortex trajectories in the nearwake,as well as the vertical profiles of the axial velocity.Results show that the pitch of the tip vortex varies inversely with the tip speed ratio.Radial expansion of the tip vortices becomes more obvious as the tip speed ratio increases.Tip vortices shed not exactly from the blade tip but from the blade span of 96.5%—99%radius of the rotor.The axial velocity profiles are transformed into V-shape from W-shape at the distance downstream of eight rotor diameters due to the momentum recovery.
Wake Numerical Simulation of Wind Field Based on Two Modified Wind Engineering Models 免费阅读 下载全文 With the assumption of the Park model that the wake region is in linear expansion and the cross-wind is in multinomial and Gaussian distribution in wake region,one develops the Park-polynomial model and the ParkGaussian model to numerically simulate the wake flow field for a single wind turbine.Compared with the measured data of wind farm and the wind tunnel test,it shows that the prediction precision of wake field has been improved obviously under the modified initial wake radius.Moreover,both of the newly modified two models could well simulate the wind velocity in wake region,because the predicted results is approximately consistent with the test result,and the cross-wind distribution conforms to that of the real flow field.The two models have still inherited many advantages of engineering models,such as simple form,easy-to-code,and high computational efficiency.Particularly,the Park-Gaussian model is the best in overall performance among them.
Correction Model for Stall Delay on Rotating Blades 免费阅读 下载全文 Stall delay is an important phenomenon on wind turbine blades.It makes the maximum aerodynamic load of a rotating blade much higher than the one predicted without a correction.A new stall delay model is established here based on the investigation of the flow around a rotating blade.The investigation results indicate that the shrink of separation vortex caused by centrifugal force is the major reason for the stall delay.Multiple factors related to the rotational effects are considered in the proposed model,such as rotating speed,inflow velocity,local chord length and radial position.Finally,the model are validated on the NREL PhaseⅣ blade and the results demonstrate that the accuracy of the aerodynamic prediction for the blade is significantly improved as the model is applied.
Critical Stokes Number for Gas-Solid Flow Erosion of Wind Turbine Airfoil 免费阅读 下载全文 Wind turbine blades are inevitable to be eroded in wind-sand environment,so it is crucial to identify the flow conditions under which the erosion happens.Here,the effect of the sand diameter on wind turbine airfoil is first investigated.When the sand diameter is less than 3μm,the sands will bypass the airfoil and no erosion occurs.When the sand diameter is larger than 4μm,the sand grains collide with the airfoil and the erosion happens.Thus,there must be a critical sand diameter between 3μm and 4μm,at which the erosion is initiated on the airfoil surface.To find out this critical value,aparticle Stokes number is introduced here.According to the range of the critical sand diameter mentioned above,the critical value of particle Stokes number is reasonably assumed to be between 0.007 8and 0.014.The assumption is subsequently validated by other four factors influecing the erosion,i.e.,the angle of attack,relative thickness of the airfoil,different series airfoil,and inflow velocity.Therefore,the critical range of Stokes number has been confirmed.
Numerical Analysis on Motion of Multi-column Tension-Leg-Type Floating Wind Turbine Basement 免费阅读 下载全文 The offshore wind energy presents a good solution for the green energy demand.The floating offshore wind turbine(FOWT)is one of the most potential choices of the basement construction for offshore wind turbines in deep water.Hydrodynamic performance of multi-column tension-leg-type floating wind turbine is investigated numerically,particularly at its motion responses.Based on the Navier-Stokes equations and the volume of fluid method,a numerical wave tank(NWT)is established to simulate the floating structure system.The analytical relaxation method is adopted to generate regular waves.Dynamic mesh method is used to calculate the motion of the floating body.Hydrostatic decay of motion and hydrodynamic forces in the regular wave are provided.The computation results agree with the experimental data available.Numerical results show that the wave force on the lower pontoon of the system is the greatest while that on the center column is the smallest.Detailed information about the changes of the wave forces on different elements of the floating system is discussed.
Coupled Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Analysis of Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Using CFD Method 免费阅读 下载全文 To simulate floating offshore wind turbine(FOWT)in coupled wind-wave domain via CFD method,the NREL 5MW wind turbine supported by the OC3-Hywind Spar platform is modeled in the STAR-CCM+ software.Based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes(RANS)equations and re-normalisation group(RNG)k-εturbulence model,the rotor aerodynamic simulation for wind turbine is conducted.Numerical results agree well with the NREL data.Taking advantage with the volume of fluid(VOF)method and dynamic fluid body interaction(DFBI)technology,the dynamic responses of the floating system with mooring lines are simulated under the coupled wind-wave sea condition.The free-decay tests for rigid-body degrees of freedom(DOFs)in still water and hydrodynamic tests in a regular wave are performed to validate the numerical model by comparing its result with the results simulated by FAST.Finally,the simulations of the overall FOWT system in the coupled wind-wave flow field are carried out.The relationship between the power output and dynamic motion responses of the platform is investigated.The numerical results show that the dynamic response of wind turbine performance and platform motions all vary in the same frequency as the inlet wave.During platform motion,the power output of wind turbine is more sensitive than the thrust force.This study may provide some reference for further research in the coupled aero-hydro simulation of FOWT.
CFD-Based Load Calculation Method for Monopile Support Configuration of Offshore Wind Turbine 免费阅读 下载全文 An unsteady load calculation method for the support configuration of a monopile-supported offshore wind turbine is developed based on the Fluent software platform.Firstly,the water wave is generated by imposing the inlet boundary conditions according to the exact potential flow solution.Then the wave evolution is simulated by solving the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes(N-S)equations coupled with the volume of fluid method.For the small amplitude wave with reasonable wave parameters,the numerical wave result agrees well with that of the given wave model.Finally,a monopile support configuration is introduced and a CFD-based load calculation method is established to accurately calculate the unsteady load under the combined action of wave and wind.The computed unsteady wave load on a small-size monopile support located in the small amplitude wave flow coincides with that of the Morison formula.The load calculations are also performed on a large-size monopile support and a monopile-supported offshore wind turbine under the combined action of small amplitude wave and wind.
Gravity Effect on the First Natural Frequency of Offshore Wind Turbine Structures 免费阅读 下载全文 The fatigue limit state is critical for most offshore wind turbine.To minimize the development of fatigue damage,dynamic amplification of the response must be avoided.Thus,it is important to ensure that the first natural frequency of the offshore wind turbine does not coincide with the excitation frequencies related to wind turbine and wave loadings.For evaluating the self-gravity influence on the first natural frequency of wind turbine support structures,the offshore wind turbine system vibration is modeled using an Euler-Bernoulli beam with axial force and horizontal force.Real data from five wind turbines available in the market are considered.The sizes of wind turbines vary from 2.3MW to 6MW,and subsequently,the heights of tubular steel towers vary from 83 mto 100m.Results indicate that the average influence of gravity on the first natural frequency is nearly 1.8%.The first natural frequency is considered ranging from 1P(rototor frequency)to 3P(blade passing frequency).The design procedure requires an accurate evaluation of the first natural frequency.From this perspective,the first natural frequency is reduced since gravity needs to be considered for the design of offshore wind turbine support structures,especially when the first natural frequency of the offshore wind turbine is close to the lower limit,rotor frequency1 P.
Fatigue Assessment Method for Composite Wind Turbine Blade 免费阅读 下载全文 Fatigue strength assessment of a horizontal axis wind turbine(HAWT)composite blade is considered.Fatigue load cases are identified,and loads are calculated by the GH Bladed software which is specified at the IEC61400 international specification and GL(Germanisher Lloyd)regulations for the wind energy conversion system.Stress analysis is performed with a 3-D finite element method(FEM).Considering Saint-Venant′s principle,a uniform cross section FEM model is built at each critical zone.Stress transformation matrixes(STM)are set up by applied six unit load components on the FEM model separately.STM can be used to convert the external load into stresses in the linear elastic range.The main material of composite wind turbine blade is fiber reinforced plastics(FRP).In order to evaluate the degree of fatigue damage of FRP,the stresses of fiber direction are extracted and the well-known strength criterion-Puck theory is used.The total fatigue damage of each laminate on the critical point is counted by the rain-flow counting method and Miner′s damage law based on general S-N curves.Several sections of a 45.3mblade of a 2 MW wind turbine are studied using the fatigue evaluation method.The performance of this method is compared with far more costly business software FOCUS.The results show that the fatigue damage of multi-axis FRP can be assessed conveniently by the FEM-STM method.And the proposed method gives a reliable and efficient method to analyze the fatigue damage of slender composite structure with variable cross-sections.
Simulation of SLD Impingement on Wind Turbine Blade Airfoil 免费阅读 下载全文 Accurate prediction of droplet impingement on wind turbine blade is one of the most important premises of anti-icing and de-icing system design.In a super-cooled large droplets(SLD)conditions,droplet no longer maintains a sphere shape,and it may deform,break up,and splash when moving or impinging on the surface.Semi-empirical models of droplet dynamic behaviours are embedded into the Eulerian droplet model to improve the accuracy of the numerical simulation of droplet impingement limits and local collection efficiency.Eulerian droplet model(Model 1)for small droplets and improved Eulerian droplet model(Model 2)for large droplet are both validated by comparing to the wind tunnel experiment results.Using the proposed methods,droplet impingement limitation and local collection efficiency on the S809 airfoil are calculated in various conditions.A detailed derivation of Model 1and Model 2is presented along with a comparison of numerical trajectories,drag coefficient and collection efficiency distributions.The results show that droplet dynamic behaviours,including splashing,break-up and deforming,must be considered to accurately simulate the impingement behaviour in the SLD conditions.And with the increase of the droplet diameters,the effects of the droplet dynamic behaviors on the impingement characteristics are more obvious.
Improvement of Mechanical, Dynamic-Mechanical and Thermal Properties for Noil Ramie Fiber Reinforced Polyethylene Composites 免费阅读 下载全文
Transactions of Nanjing University of Aeronautics ＆ Astronautics Information for Contributors 免费阅读 下载全文
PREFACE 免费阅读 下载全文