Self-propulsion of a three-dimensional flapping flexible plate 免费阅读 下载全文 The self-propulsion of a 3-D flapping flexible plate in a stationary fluid is numerically studied by an immersed boundarylattice Boltzmann method for the fluid flow and a finite element method for the plate motion. When the leading-edge of the plate is forced to heave sinusoidally, the entire plate starts to move freely as a result of the fluid-structure interaction. Based on our simulation and analysis on the dynamical behaviors of the flapping flexible plate, we have found that the effect of plate aspect ratio on its propulsive properties can be divided into three typical regimes which are related to the plate flexibility, i.e. stiff, medium flexible, and more flexible regime. It is also identified that a suitable structure flexibility, corresponding to the medium flexible regime, can improve the propulsive speed and efficiency. The wake behind the flapping plate is investigated for several aspect ratios to demonstrate some typical vortical structures. The results obtained in this study can provide some physical insights into the understanding of the propulsive mechanisms in the flapping-based locomotion.
A numerical model for pipelaying on nonlinear soil stiffness seabed 免费阅读 下载全文 The J-lay method is regarded as one of the most feasible methods to lay a pipeline in deep water and ultra-deep water. A numerical model that accounts for the nonlinear soil stiffness is developed in this study to evaluate a J-lay pipeline. The pipeline considered in this model is divided into two parts: the part one is suspended in water, and the part two is laid on the seabed. In addition to the boundary conditions at the two end points of the pipeline, a special set of the boundary conditions is required at the touchdown point that connects the two parts of the pipeline. The two parts of the pipeline are solved by a numerical iterative method and the finite difference method, respectively. The proposed numerical model is validated for a special case using a catenary model and a numerical model with linear soil stiffness. A good agreement in the pipeline configuration, the tension force and the bending moment is obtained among these three models. Furthermore, the present model is used to study the importance of the nonlinear soil stiffness. Finally, the parametric study is performed to study the effect of the mudline shear strength, the gradient of the soil shear strength, and the outer diameter of the pipeline on the pipelaying solution.
Numerical simulation of flow and bed morphology in the case of dam break floods with vegetation effect 免费阅读 下载全文 The purpose of this study is to establish a depth-averaged 2-D hydrodynamic and sediment transport model for the dambreak flows with vegetation effect. The generalized shallow water equations are solved using an explicit finite volume method with unstructured quadtree rectangular grid, and in the hydrodynamic model, a Harten-Lax-Van Leer(HLL) approximate Riemann solver is used to calculate the intercell flux for capturing the dry-to-wet moving boundary. The sediment transport and bed variation equations in a coupled fashion are calculated by including the bed variation and the variable flow density in the flow continuity and momentum equations. The drag force of vegetation is modeled as the sink terms in the momentum equations. The developed model is tested against lab experiments of the dam-break flows over a fix bed and a movable bed in vegetated and non-vegetated channels. The results are compared with experimental data, and good agreement is obtained. It is shown that the reduced velocity under vegetated conditions leads to a decrease of the peak discharge and a rise of the water level of rivers and also an enhancement of the sediment deposition.
Wave force on composite bucket foundation of an offshore wind turbine 免费阅读 下载全文 A new analytical expression for calculating the wave force on a composite bucket foundation is obtained. Based on the diffraction theory, the analytical solution of the wave pressure and the wave force on the composite bucket foundation is accurately derived by assigning reasonable boundary conditions. Experiments for the wave pressure on the bucket foundation with a scale of 1:60 under different wave conditions in the wave flume are designed and conducted. The analytical results agree well with the experimental data, and the theoretical approach can accurately predict the wave force on the large-scale structures. The wave pressure distribution on the composite bucket foundation is presented and the influence of the wave height, the water depth and the wave period on the wave force on the composite bucket foundation is investigated. This study provides a quite accurate method to calculate the wave force on a composite bucket foundation, which gives a good framework for future studies of the wave force on other large-scale structures with complex boundaries.
Numerical and experimental studies of hydraulic noise induced by surface dipole sources in a centrifugal pump 免费阅读 下载全文 The influences of the four different surface dipole sources in a centrifugal pump on the acoustic calculating accuracy are studied in this paper, by using the CFD combined with the Lighthill acoustic analogy methods. Firstly, the unsteady flow in the pump is solved based on the large eddy simulation method and the pressure pulsations on the four different surfaces are obtained. The four surfaces include the volute surface, the discharge pipe surface, the inner surface of the pump cavity, and the interfaces between the impeller and the stationary parts as well as the outer surface of the impeller. Then, the software Sysnoise is employed to interpolate the pressure fluctuations onto the corresponding surfaces of the acoustic model. The Fast Fourier Transform with a Hanning window is used to analyze the pressure fluctuations and transform them into the surface dipole sources. The direct boundary element method is applied to calculate the noise radiated from the dipole sources. And the predicted sound pressure level is compared with the experimental data. The results show that the pressure fluctuations on the discharge pipe surface and the outer surface of the impeller have little effect on the acoustic simulation results. The pressure pulsations on the inner surface of the pump cavity play an important role in the internal flow and the acoustic simulation. The acoustic calculating error can be reduced by about 7% through considering the effect of the pump cavity. The sound pressure distributions show that the sound pressure level increases with the growing flow rate, with the largest magnitude at the tongue zone.
Numerical study of spike characteristics due to the motions of a non-spherical rebounding bubble 免费阅读 下载全文 The boundary integral method(BIM) is used to simulate the 3-D gas bubble, generated within the two bubble pulsation periods in proximity to a free surface in an inviscid, incompressible and irrotational flow. The present method is well validated by comparing the calculated shapes of the bubble and the free surface with both the experimental results and the numerical ones obtained by the Axisymmetric BIM code. The expansion, the collapse of the gas bubble and the further evolution of the rebounding non-spherical bubble are simulated. The various variation patterns of the free surface spike and the bubble centroid for different standoff distances, the buoyancy parameters and the strength parameters are obtained to reveal the nonlinear interaction between the bubble and the free surface. The amplitude of the second maximum bubble volume and the four typical patterns of the bubble jet and the free surface spike are examined in the context of the standoff distance. The large buoyancy is used to elevate the spray dome rather than the free surface spike.
Mass transport in a thin layer of power-law fluid in an Eulerian coordinate system 免费阅读 下载全文 The mass transport velocity in a thin layer of muddy fluid is studied theoretically. The mud motion is driven by a periodic pressure load on the free surface, and the mud is described by a power-law model. Based on the key assumptions of the shallowness and the small deformation, a perturbation analysis is conducted up to the second order to find the mean Eulerian velocity in an Eulerian coordinate system. The numerical iteration method is adopted to solve these non-linear equations of the leading order. From the numerical results, both the first-order flow fields and the second-order mass transport velocities are examined. The verifications are made by comparing the numerical results with experimental results in the literature, and a good agreement is confirmed.
Pelton turbine： Identifying the optimum number of buckets using CFD 免费阅读 下载全文
Flow, thermal criticality and transition of a reactive third-grade fluid in a pipe with Reynolds＇ model viscosity 免费阅读 下载全文 Neglecting the consumption of the material, a steady incompressible flow of an exothermic reacting third-grade fluid with viscous heating in a circular cylindrical pipe is numerically studied for both cases of constant viscosity and Reynolds’ viscosity model. The coupled ordinary differential equations governing the flow in cylindrical coordinates, are transformed into dimensionless forms using appropriate transformations, and then solved numerically. Solutions using Maple are presented in tabular form and given in terms of dimensionless central fluid velocity and temperature, skin friction and heat transfer rate for three parametric values in the Reynolds’ case. The numerical results for the velocity and temperature fields are also presented through graphs. Bifurcations are discussed using shooting method. Comparisons are also made between the present results and those of previous work, and thus verify the validity of the provided numerical solutions. Important properties of thermal criticality are provided for variable viscosity parameter and reaction order. Further numerical results are presented in the form of tables and graphs for transition of physical parameters, while varying certain flow and fluid material parameters. Also, the flow behaviour of the reactive fluid of third-grade is compared with those of the Newtonian reactive fluid.
Investigation of the effects of platform motion on the aerodynamics of a floating offshore wind turbine 免费阅读 下载全文 Along with the flourishing of the wind energy industry, floating offshore wind turbines have aroused much interest among the academia as well as enterprises. In this paper, the effects of the supporting platform motion on the aerodynamics of a floating wind turbine are studied using the open source CFD framework Open FOAM. The platform motion responses, including surge, heave and pitch, are superimposed onto the rotation of the wind turbine. Thrust and torque on the wind turbine are compared and analysed for the cases of different platform motion patterns together with the flow field. It is shown that the movement of the supporting platform can have large influences on a floating offshore wind turbine and thus needs to be considered carefully during the design process.
Formation of air-entraining vortices at horizontal intakes without approach flow induced circulation 免费阅读 下载全文 The aim of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of hydraulic parameters on the formation of air-entraining vortices at horizontal intake structures without approach flow induced circulation. Six intake pipes of different diameters were tested in the study. The intake pipe to be tested was horizontally mounted to the front side of a large reservoir and then for a wide range of discharges experiments were conducted and critical submergences were detected with adjustable approach channel sidewalls. Empirical equations were derived for the dimensionless critical submergence as a function of the relevant dimensionless parameters. Available data is also checked for the possible scale effect. Then, these obtained equations were compared with the similar ones in the literature which showed a quite good agreement.
Mixing of two different electrolyte solutions in electromagnetic rectangular mixers 免费阅读 下载全文 This study proposes a new electromagnetic rectangular mixer, and numerically examines the mixing characteristics of two different electrolyte solutions in the device under a uniform magnetic field. The mixer consists of a conduit with electrodes equipped on its top and bottom walls. The difference in the electric potentials applied to the sets of electrodes induces the current. The combination of the induced current and magnetic field yields Lorentz force, resulting in the fluid motion for pumping and mixing of the two different fluids. The numerical simulation is carried out with the use of commercial software CFX. The present numerical model is validated by an existing numerical work. The effect of different variables on mixing efficiency is investigated in many different cases with two different heights of the duct and various input voltages of the electrodes. The current simulation results indicate that the mixing performance can be enhanced by using multiple sets of electrodes and applying higher input voltages(absolute values) to the electrodes.
A new biomimicry marine current turbine： Study of hydrodynamic performance and wake using software OpenFOAM 免费阅读 下载全文 Inspired by Dryobalanops aromatica seed, a new biomimicry marine current turbine is proposed. Hydrodynamic performance and wake properties are two key factors determining whether a new marine current turbine design is practical or not. Thus, a study of hydrodynamic performance and wake of the proposed biomimicry turbine is conducted. The computational fluid dynamics(CFD) software, Open FOAM is used to generate the required results for the mentioned study. The hydrodynamic performance and wake properties of the proposed biomimicry turbine is compared to two conventional turbines of Bahaj et al. and Pinon et al. respectively. The simulation results showed that the proposed biomimicry marine current turbine gives optimum power output with its power coefficient, 0.376 PC ≈ at the tip speed ratio(TSR) of 1.5. Under the same boundary conditions, the maximum torque produced by the proposed biomimicry turbine at zero rotational speed is 38.71 Nm which is 1110% greater than the torque generated by the turbine of Bahaj et al.. The recovery distance for the wake of the biomimicry turbine is predicted to be 10.6% shorter than that of IFREMER-LOMC turbine. The above-mentioned results confirm the potential application of the proposed biomimicry marine current turbine in the renewable energy industry.
Numerical study of the flow in the Yellow River with non-monotonous banks 免费阅读 下载全文 A 2-D depth averaged RNG k- ε model is developed to simulate the flow in a typical reach of the Upper Yellow River with non-monotonic banks. In order to take account of the effect of the secondary flow in a bend, the momentum equations are modified by adding an additional source term. A comparison between the numerical simulation and the field measurements indicates that the improved 2-D depth averaged RNG k- ε model can improve the accuracy of the numerical simulation. An arc spline interpolation method is developed to interpolate the non-monotonic river banks. The method can also be reasonably applied for the 2-D interpolation of the river bed level. Through a comparison of the water surface gradients simulated in the seven bends of the studied reach, some analytical formulae are improved to reasonably calculate the longitudinal and transverse gradients in meandering river reaches. Furthermore, the positions of the maximum water depth and the maximum velocity in a typical bend are discussed.
Study of bedload transport in backwater flow 免费阅读 下载全文 This paper studies the flow structure and the bedload transport regime in backwater flows, to provide a theoretical support for solving the sediment transport and bed scour problems in rivers or reservoirs with backwater. The bedload transport rates under different conditions are analyzed first on the basis of theoretical analysis, measurement comparison and flume experiment, and it is pointed out that the existing formulas for the bedload transport rate are not applicable for the bedload transport rate in backwater flows. Next, the flow structure in a non-uniform flow is observed by flume experiments, and by introducing the backwater degree index, the quantitative relation between the relative bed shear stress and the backwater degree is obtained. Finally, the formula for the bedload transport rate applicable for the reservoir channel segment with backwater flows is obtained through measurements and flume experiments.
Experimental study of water and dissolved pollutant runoffs on impervious surfaces 免费阅读 下载全文 The water and dissolved pollutant runoffs on impervious surfaces are the essential factor to be considered in design methods to minimize the impacts of the diffuse water pollution. In this paper, experiments are conducted to study the water and dissolved pollutant runoffs on impervious surfaces for different rainfall intensities and surface roughnesses. It is shown that a larger rainfall intensity and a smaller surface roughness reduce the time of concentration and increase the pollutant transport rate. Most of the pollutant runoffs take place at the initial stage of the rainfall. The pollutant transport rate rapidly reaches a peak and then gradually drops to zero.
Ski-jump trajectory based on take-off velocity 免费阅读 下载全文 The theoretical method estimating ski-jump trajectory was paid attention to and modified. The present method is based on the effects of the take-off velocity and the angle in the sensitivity analysis of parameters. The experiments are conducted for a triangular-shaped flip bucket in order to reveal the relationships between the take-off velocity and its influencing factors. The results show that, the take-off velocity has a much larger effect on the impact point than the take-off angle. The take-off velocities of both upper and lower trajectories are all functions of the approach flow Froude number, the deflector height and the deflection angle, especially, the results of the deflection angle of 25° could be directly used when this angle is larger than 25° Meanwhile, this method is checked and the maximum relative errors of both U calx and Lcalx are 5.1% and 5.6%, respectively.
The Second Conference of Global Chinese Scholars on Hydrodynamics（CCSH＇2016） 免费阅读 下载全文
1^st International Conference on the Material Point Method for Modelling Large Deformation and Soil-Water-Structure Interaction 免费阅读 下载全文