Crack detection procedures by different modal parameters are analyzed for identitying a crack and its location and magnitude in a jacket plafform. The first ten natural frequencies and modal shapes of the jacket models are obtained by numerical experiments based on NASTRAN Code. A crack at different locations and of different magnitudes is imposed in the model at the underwater beams. Then, the modal evaluation parameters are calculated numerically, to illustrate the evaluation of modal parameter criteria used in jacket crack detection. The sensitivities of different modal parameters to different cracks are analyzed. A new technique is presented for predicting the approximate location of a breakage in the absence of the data of an intact model. This method can be used to detect a crack in underwater menbers by use of incomplete mode shapes of the top members of the jacket.
Based on Iwan‘s wake oseillator model developed with the classical van der Pol equalion, the differential equation for the response of the vortex-induced vihration (VIV) of the riser considering the effect of the internal flowing fluid and the external marine environmental condition is derived. The effect of the intermal flowing fluid on the response of VIV of the riser is studied by means of the Finite Element Method. The results show that the effect of the internal fluid velocity on the VIV of the riser is strong when the natural frequency of the riser is close to the vortex shedding frequency. In addition, the increase of the top tension can decrease the sensitivity of the riser to the internal fluid velocity.
An opened bottom cylinder is a large-diameter cylinder placed on a rubber base or embedded in a soil foundation.The settlement of such a cylinder differs greatly from that of a closed bottom cylinder and so does the distribution of inner soil pressure over the opened bottom cylindrical structure. Through investigation of the settlement and the inner soil pressure on the opened bottom cylinder by model experiments, the interactions among the filler inside the cylinder, subsoil and cylinder are analyzed. The adjusting mechanism of friction resistance between the inner filler and the wall of the cylinder during overturning of the cylinder is discussed. Based on the experimental study, a method for calculating the inner soil pressure on the cylindrical structure under axisymmetric loading or non- axisymmetric ( with lateral ) loading is proposed in this paper. Meanwhile, the effective anti-overturning ratio of the opened bottom cylinder is derived.
This paper presents the results of comparison of impact pressures on own-plied structures induced by regular waves and irregular waves in a laboratory channel. Regular waves with wave heights ranging from 0.1 - 0.2 m and periods ranging from 1.0- 2.0 s are tested. The target spectrum for the irregular wave is JONSWAP spectrum. Irregular waves with siguifieant wave heights in the range of 0.10 - 0.25 m and peak periods in the range of 1 . 0 -2.0 s are tested. The relative clearance s/H1/3(H) is between - 0.1 and 0.4, s being the subtace level of structure model above the still water level. Time series of impact pressure are analyzed to indicate whether the properly of impact pressures induced by the regular wave significantly deviates from that by the irregular wave. The distribution of the impact pressure along the underside of the structure is compared for different types of incident waves. The effects of wave parameters, structure dimension and structure clearance on the impact pressure are also diseussed.
Based on the consideration of operation environment and structural property, an optimnm design model of offshore jacket platform is developed in this paper, namely, the reliability-based full-life cycle optimum design model. In this model, the time-dependent reliability assessment method for structural members is established by combination of the decrease, of sectional size and performance deterioration of material. The initial investment, maintenance cost and failure loss cost are assembled into the model. The total cost of the platform structure system in its full service period is chosen as the objective function, and the initial reliabilities of the layer elements partitioned in advance are taken as the design variables. Different models are obtained, depending on whether the system reliability eonstraint is considered or not. This optimum design model can result in the lowest full-life cost and the optimal initial layer reliability of an offshore jacket platform in the design of marine structures. The feasibility of this model is illustrated with an actual jacket platform in the Liaodong Gulf as an example.
A fully nonlinear numerical wave tank (NWT) has been simulated by use of a three-dimensional higher order bouodary element method (HOBEM) in the time domain. Within the frame of potential flow and the adoption of simply Rankine source, the resulting boundary integral equation is repeatedly solved at each time step and the fully nonlinear free surface boundary conditions are integrated with time to update its position and boundary values. A smooth technique is also adopted in order to eliminate the possible saw-tooth numerical instabilities. The incident wave at the uptank is given as theoretical wave in this paper. The outgoing waves are absorbed inside a damping zone by spatially varying artificial damping on the free surface at the wave tank end. The numerical results show that the NWT developed by these approaches has a high accuracy and good numerical stability.
Based on the maximum entropy principle, a probability density function (PDF) is derived for the distribution of wave heights in a random wave field, without any more hypothesis. The present PDF, being a non-Rayleigh fonu, involves two parameters: the average wave height H^- and the state parameter γ. The role of γ in the distribution of wave heights is examined. It is found that γ may be a certain measure of sea state. A least square method for determining γ from measured data is proposed. In virtue of the method, the values of γ are determined for three sea states from the data measured in the East China Sea. The present PDF is compared with the well known Rayleigh PDF of wave height and it is shown that it much better fits the data than the Rayleigh PDF. It is expected that the present PDF would fit some other wave variables, since its derivation is not restricted only to the wave height.
A numerical model for shallow water flow has been developed based on the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the hydrodynamic pressure instead of hydrostatic pressure assumption. The equations arc transformed into the a-coordinate system and the eddy viscosity is calculated with the standard k -ε turbulence model. The control volume method is used to discrete the equations, and the boundary conditions at the bed for shallow water models only include vertical diffusion terms expressed with wall functions. And the semi-implicit methed for pressure linked equation arithmetic is adopted to solve the equations. The model is applied to the 2D vertical plane flow of a current over two steep-sided trenches for which experiment data are available for comparison and good agreement is obtained. And the model is used to predicting the flow in a channel with a steep-sided submerged breakwater at the bottom, and the streamline is drawn.
In this paper the range of validity and comparison of accuracy of three Boussinesq-type models (Madsen and Sφrensen, 1992; Nwogu, 1993; Wei et al., 1995; referred to as MS, NW and WKGS, respectively) are analyzed and discussed. The governing equations are extended to the second-order approximations to keep higher-order nonlinear terms. Two key parameters ε and μ representing wave nonlinear and frequency dispersive properties are used to demarcate the limit of applicability for these three models. The accuracy of predictions by each model is compared by the relative errors with and without hlgher-order nonlinear terms in Boussinesq equations. A numerical model is developed based on one-dimensional Boussinesq equations and applied to the case of waves propagating over a submerged bar. The performance and feasibility of each model are tested against laboratory data.
A novel method for prediction of the load carrying capacity of a corroded reinforced concrete beam (CRCB) is presented in the paper. Nine reinforced concrete beams, which had been working in an aggressive environment for more than 10 years, were tested in the laboratory. Comprehensive tests, including flexural test, strength test for corroded concrete and rusty rebar, and pullout test for bond strength between concrete and rebar, were condueted. The flexural test results of CRCBs reveal that the distribution of surface cracks on the beams shows a fractal behavior. The relationship between the fractal dimensions and mechanical properties of CRCBs is then studied. A prediction model based on artificial neural network (ANN) is established by the use of the fractal dimension as the corrosion index, together with the basic intbrmation of the beam. The validity of the prediction model is demonstrated through the experimental data, and satisfactory resuits are achieved.
In this paper,the effects of a quay or a solid jetty on hydrodynamic coefficients and vertical wave excitation forces on a ship woth or without forward speed are discussed.A modified simple Green function technique is used to calculate the 2D coefficients while the strip theory is used to calculate the 3D coefficients. Wave excitation forces are also calculated with the strip theory. Numerical results are provided for hydrodynamic coefficients and vertical wave excitation forces on a 200000 DWT tanker ship. It is found that the quay has a considerable effect on the hydrodynamic coefficients and wave excitation forces for a ship.
Several sets of S4 direction-wave-current-tide meters have been deployed on the coral-reef fiat of Yongshu Reef in the sea area of Nansha Islands. Based on the observational sea wave data, the attenuation characteristics of the waves propagating on the coral reef flat, the bottom friction coefficients and the transfer of wave energy are discussed in the paper. The results show that, in the relative depths of 0. 0613- 0.0867, the wave height attenuation per unit distance of wave propagation is 22.09 %-46.56%, with an average of 31.35 % ; the wave energy, attenuation coefficient, 33.74 %- 53.22%, with an average of 43.61%. The average of the bettom friction coefficients on the coral-reef flat is 0. 1346,which is about 10 times thai on the sand or silt bottom. In the couse of propagation on the reef flat, the waves sustain more loss in high frequency than in low frequency and the spectral energy transfers to the low frequency. These results may be used for reference in island and reef engineering.
Serious sediment deposition often occurs after the construction of tidal sluices in snrall or medium-sized tidal muddy estuaries, so desilting or dredging is needed to meet the demands of flood diseharge, saltwater retaining, and navigation in those areas. In this paper, the problem of sediment deposition induced by construction of tidal sluices is analyzed.Different problems of silting near tidal sluices for different types of estuaries are summed up. at the same time, corresponding methods are given to solve these probleras, and a few successful examples are also given. The idea of comprehensive regulation and utilization of estuaries is put forward, and some proposals for solution of sediment deposition in this kind of estuaries are made.
Observations of fluid mud were made in the lower North Passage of the Yangtze Estuary in February 2000, on 10 -11 August 2000, on 30 - 31 August 2000 (after two strong typhoons), on 21 - 24 August 2000 (neap tide) and on 3 -6 September 2000 (mean tide) respectively. In situ data show that the fluid mud in this area consists of fine cohesive sediment (median size 7.23 μm). The formation and movement of fluid mud varied during the neap-spring and flood-ebb tidal cycle. Observations suggest that fluid mud phenomena in this area may be categorised in a three-fold manner as slack water, storm and saltwedge features. The thickness of the fluid mud layer of slack water during the neap tide ranged from 0.2 to 0.96 m, whereas during the mean tide, the thickness ranged from 0.17 to 0.73 m, and the thickness of the fluid mud layer was larger during slack water than at the flood peak. Shoals cover an area of 800 km^2 with a water depth smaller than 5 m. Erosion of these extensive intertidal mudflats due to storm action provides an abundant sediment source. This is particularly significant in this estuary when the tidal level is lower than 5 m. The lower North Passage is a typical zone of saltwater wedging, so the saltwedge fluid mud has the most extensive spatial range in the estuary.
Lock-release gravity currents with a viscous self-similar regime are simulated by use of the renormalization group(RNG) k - ε model for Reynolds-stress closure. Besides the turbulent regime with initially a slumping phase of a conslant current front speed and later an inviseid self-similar phase of front speed decreasing as t^-1/3(where t is the time measured from release), the viseous self-similar regime is satisfactorily reproduced with front speed decreasing as t^-4/5,consistent with well known experimental observations.
Starting from the widespread phenomena of porous bottoms in the near shore region, considering fully the diversity of bottom topography and wave number variation, and including the effect of evanescent modes, a general linear wave theory for water waves propagating over uneven porous bottoms in the near shore region is established by use of Green‘s scond identity. This theory can be reduced to a number of the most typical mild-slope equations curreutly in use and provide a reliable research basis for follow-up development of nonlinear water wave theory involving porous bottoms.