<正>In 2015,the greatest news for natural scientists,especially Chinese scientists in the field of natural medicines,was that Professor TU You-You won the 2015 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine~,which is believed to be the first Nobel Prize in natural sciences awarded to a China-based scientist in history.Professor Tu shared this Prize with Professors William C.
<正>The discovery of artemisinin is significant because not only it is an innovative new drug,but also its treatment of malaria has saved millions of lives worldwide,especially in(tropical)developing countries.The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Professor Tu You-You,a scientist from China,who made this seminal discovery.Malaria is one of the most prevalent parasitic
<正>The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was jointly awarded to three scientists for their great contributions to the discoveries of novel therapies against parasitic diseases,including TU You-You,a Chinese medical scientist,pharmaceutical chemist and pharmacist,for her remarkable contribution to the discovery of artemisinin(Qinghaosu)
The ginseng family,including Panax ginseng(Asian ginseng),Panax quinquefolius(American ginseng),and Panax notoginseng(notoginseng),is commonly used herbal medicine.White ginseng is prepared by air-drying after harvest,while red ginseng is prepared by a steaming or heating process.The anticancer activity of red ginseng is significantly increased,due to the production of active anticancer ginsenosides during the steaming treatment,compared with that of white ginseng.Thus far,anticancer studies have been mostly focused on Asian ginseng.In this article,we review the research progress made in the anticancer activities of red Asian ginseng,red American ginseng and red notoginseng.The major anticancer mechanisms of red ginseng compounds include cell cycle arrest,induction of apoptosis/paraptosis,and inhibition of angiogenesis.The structure-function relationship analysis has revealed that the protopanaxadiol group ginsenosides have more potent effects than the protopanaxatriol group.Sugar molecules in ginsenosides inversely impact the antiproliferative potential of these compounds.In addition,ginsenoside stereoselectivity and double bond position also influence the anticancer activity.Future studies should focus on characterizing active red ginseng derivatives as potential anticancer drugs.
The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive summary on the botany,utility,phytochemistry,pharmacology,and clinical trials of Morus alba(mulberry or sang shu).The mulberry foliage has remained the primary food for silkworms for centuries.Its leaves have also been used as animal feed for livestock and its fruits have been made into a variety of food products.With flavonoids as major constituents,mulberry leaves possess various biological activities,including antioxidant,antimicrobial,skin-whitening,cytotoxic,anti-diabetic,glucosidase inhibition,anti-hyperlipidemic,anti-atherosclerotic,anti-obesity,cardioprotective,and cognitive enhancement activities.Rich in anthocyanins and alkaloids,mulberry fruits have pharmacological properties,such as antioxidant,anti-diabetic,anti-atherosclerotic,anti-obesity,and hepatoprotective activities.The root bark of mulberry,containing flavonoids,alkaloids and stilbenoids,has antimicrobial,skin-whitening,cytotoxic,anti-inflammatory,and anti-hyperlipidemic properties.Other pharmacological properties of M.alba include anti-platelet,anxiolytic,anti-asthmatic,anthelmintic,antidepressant,cardioprotective,and immunomodulatory activities.Clinical trials on the efficiency of M.alba extracts in reducing blood glucose and cholesterol levels and enhancing cognitive ability have been conducted.The phytochemistry and pharmacology of the different parts of the mulberry tree confer its traditional and current uses as fodder,food,cosmetics,and medicine.Overall,M.alba is a multi-functional plant with promising medicinal properties.
Delonix regia(Bojer ex Hook)Raffin(Fabaceae),also known as flame of forest,is a semi-deciduous tree,distributed throughout Madagascar,India,Africa,and Northern Australia.Various parts of the plant are traditionally used for the treatment of different ailments such as inflammation,rheumatism,bronchitis,diabetes,anemia,fever,gynecological disorders,and pneumonia.The plant possess antioxidant,hepatoprotective,gastroprotective,wound healing,antiarthritic,larvicidal,antimalarial,antiemetic,antibacterial,antifungal,antiinflammatory,analgesic,antidiarrhoeal,antiheamolytic,diuretic,and anthelmintic activities.This review is an up-to-date compilation on its traditional uses in context to phytochemical and pharmacological perspectives.
The present study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant potentials of silibinin(SBN)against N-nitrosodimethylamine(DMN)-induced toxic insults in the rat liver.The liver damage was induced in Wistar albino rats by repeated administration of DMN(10 mg·kg-1 b.w.,i.p.)on 3 consecutive days per week for 3 weeks.SBN(100 mg·kg-1 b.w.,p.o.)was given daily to the DMN treated rats for two weeks.The marker enzymes of liver toxicity and second-line enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants were evaluated in serum and liver tissues before and after SBN treatment.Histopathology of the liver was evaluated by H & E staining.The DMN treatment produced a progressive increase in all the serum marker enzymes(AST,ALT,ALP,LDH,and γ-GT),peaking on Day 21.This treatment produced highly significant decreases in all the second-line antioxidant parameters(GSH,GST,GR,GPx,and vitamins C and E).The SBN treatment significantly reversed the DMN-induced damages,towards normalcy.Histopathological studies confirmed the development of liver toxicity in DMN-treated rats,which was reversed by SBN treatment in corroboration with the aforementioned biochemical results,indicating the hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of SBN.In conclusion,the DMN-induced degenerative changes in the liver were alleviated by SBN treatment and this protective ability may be attributed to its antioxidant,free radical scavenging,and membrane stabilizing properties.
Insulin resistance is the pathophysiological basis of many diseases.Overcoming early insulin resistance highly significant in prevention diabetes,non-alcoholic fatty liver,and atherosclerosis.The present study aimed at evaluating the therapeutic effects of baicalin on insulin resistance and skeletal muscle ectopic fat storage in high fat diet-induced mice,and exploring the potential molecular mechanisms.Insulin resistance in mice was induced with a high fat diet for 16 weeks.Animals were then treated with three different doses of baicalin(100,200,and 400 mg·kg-1·d-1for 14 weeks.Fasting blood glucose,fasting serum insulin,glucose tolerance test（GTT）,insulin tolerance test（ITT）,and skeletal muscle lipid deposition were measured.Additionally,the AMP-activated protein kinase/acetyl-CoA carboxylase and protein kinase B/Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta pathways in skeletal muscle were further evaluated.Baicalin significantly reduced the levels of fasting blood glucose and fasting serum insulin and attenuated high fat diet induced glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance.Moreover,insulin resistance was significantly reversed.Pathological analysis revealed baicalin dose-dependently decreased the degree of the ectopic fat storage in skeletal muscle.The properties of baicalin were mediated,at least in part,by inhibition of the AMPK/ACC pathway,a key regulator of de novo lipogenesis and activation of the Akt/GSK-3β pathway,a key regulator of Glycogen synthesis.These data suggest that baicalin,at dose up to 400 mg·kg-1·d-1,is safe and able to attenuate insulin resistance and skeletal muscle ectopic fat storage,through modulating the skeletal muscle AMPK/ACC pathway and Akt/GSK-3β pathway.
The present study was designed to investigate the non-alkaloid compounds from the leaves and stems of Vinca major cultivated in Yunnan Province,China.The compounds were isolated using chromatographic techniques.The structures were elucidated by 1D-and 2D-NMR spectroscopic methods in combination with UV,IR,and MS analyses.The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl（DPPH）-scavenging activity of Compounds 1–7 were evaluated.One new iridoid glycoside（compound 1）,together with 11 known compounds,were isolated from Vinca major.Compounds 1,5,and 6 showed moderate DPPH-scavenging activity,with IC50 values being 70.6,32.8,and 62.2 μmol·L-1,respectively.In conclusion,compound 1 is a newly identified iridoid glycoside with moderate antioxidant activity.
In order to determine the chemical constituents of Cistanche deserticola cultured in Tarim desert,a systematically phytochemical investigation was carried out.The constituents were isolated by silica gel,Sephadex LH-20,MCI gel,ODS column chromatography,and semi-preparative HPLC.Their structures were determined on the basis of MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses,by chemical methods,and/or comparison with literature data.The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the lipopolysaccharide（LPS）-induced nitric oxide（NO）production in BV-2 mouse microglial cells.Nine iridoids were isolated and identified as cistadesertoside A（1）,cistanin（2）,cistachlorin（3）,6-deoxycatalpol（4）,gluroside（5）,kankanoside A（6）,ajugol（7）,bartsioside（8）,and 8-epi-loganic acid（9）.Compound 9 exhibited potent inhibition on the NO production with an IC50 value being 5.2 μmol·L-1,comparable to the positive control quercetin(4.3 μmol·L-1).Compound 1 was a new iridoid,and compounds 5,6,and 8 were isolated from this species for the first time.
Flavonoids are a large group of phenolic secondary metabolites havinga wide range of biochemical and pharmacological effects.Quantitative analysis of flavonoid profiles in the genus Actinidia,which has not been intensively conducted,is useful to a better understanding of the pattern and distribution of flavonoids.In the present work,a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry(LC-ESI-MS/MS)method was developed to profile the flavonoids,which was then used to determine the dynamic change of 17 biologically active flavonoids in the leaves of Actinidia valvata at the main growing stages,including glucuronides and acylated di-and triglycosides of flavonoids.The contents of flavonoid triglycosides were significantly higher than other flavonoids.The highest concentrations of kaemperol glycosides were observed in June,while other flavonoids showed highest concentrations in October.On the other hand,the contents of four isorhamnetin glycosides were increased sharply in September to October.The flavonoid profiles seem to be related to temperature,UV-B,and water deficit.Further studies are required to examine the functions of flavonoids in the Actinidia valvata and the underlying molecular mechanisms of actions.
The present study was designed to determine the relationships between the performance of ethanol precipitation and seven process parameters in the ethanol precipitation process of Re Du Ning Injections,including concentrate density,concentrate temperature,ethanol content,flow rate and stir rate in the addition of ethanol,precipitation time,and precipitation temperature.Under the experimental and simulated production conditions,a series of precipitated resultants were prepared by changing these variables one by one,and then examined by HPLC fingerprint analyses.Different from the traditional evaluation model based on single or a few constituents,the fingerprint data of every parameter fluctuation test was processed with Principal Component Analysis(PCA)to comprehensively assess the performance of ethanol precipitation.Our results showed that concentrate density,ethanol content,and precipitation time were the most important parameters that influence the recovery of active compounds in precipitation resultants.The present study would provide some reference for pharmaceutical scientists engaged in research on pharmaceutical process optimization and help pharmaceutical enterprises adapt a scientific and reasonable cost-effective approach to ensure the batch-to-batch quality consistency of the final products.