Towards a new climate economics:research areas and prospects 免费阅读 下载全文 International cooperation to address climate change now stands at a crossroads.With a new international regime for emissions reduction established by the Durban Platform, "New Climate Economics(NCE)" has become a research hotspot.The need for urgent action to combat climate change has prompted discussion on reforms of economic growth patterns and the energy system.The industrial civilization,therefore,now faces a transition towards a new pathway for ecological sustainability.NCE explores new economic concepts,theories,and analytical methods to design a balanced pathway for sustainable growth and emission reduction.Instead of getting trapped in discussions on allocation of emission reduction responsibilities and obligations among countries,NCE pays more attention to developing win-win multilateral cooperation mechanisms that facilitate collaborative R&D and knowledge sharing.In addition,NCE studies incentives for low-carbon transition,turning carbon emission reduction into a domestic need for countries to increase their international competitiveness.To achieve the 2°C target,most countries around the world face challenges of insufficient emission allowances to cover expected emissions associated with their projected economic growth.As carbon emissions rights becomes an increasingly scarce resource,increasing the carbon productivity of the economy turns to be the critical path to address the dilemma of green or growth.NCE studies the historical evolution of carbon productivity for countries at different development stages as well as ways to enhance such carbon productivity.This type of study provides invaluable lessons for emerging economies to reach their own emission peaks without losing the momentum of growth.Replacing fossil fuels with new and renewable energy has proven to be an inevitable choice for reshaping the energy system and addressing climate change- it has already become a global trend.NCE studies incentives for new energy technology innovation and de...SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION 免费阅读 下载全文 <正>Chinese Journal of Population Resources and Environment,Print ISSN 1004-2857,Online ISSN 2325-4262,Volume 13,2015.Chinese Journal of Population Resources and Environment(www.tandfonline.com/tpre)is a peer-reviewed journal published in March,June,September,and December by Taylor&hrancis,4 Park Square,Milton Park,Abingdon,Oxon,OX14 4RN,UK.
Consideration of some key issues of carbon market development in China 免费阅读 下载全文 The global carbon market has developed rapidly with two significant trends of globalization and financialization.Deriving economic interest is a nation driven-force behind the international climate negotiation and carbon market.According to deeply analyzed relationships between the carbon market and the key subjects of the climate negotiation,this article reveals that promoting the development of the global carbon market is one of the core interests of developed nations.Based on the background of international carbon market development and domestic carbon market pilots,four suggestions to the key issues of China’s carbon market are provided.The first is that the goal of China’s carbon market should be in line with and contribute to the national objectives and policies addressing climate change.The second is that the Chinese carbon market should mainly target the emission reduction of production-sectors,and contribute to their upgradation and transformation.The third is mat the development of the nation-wide carbon market in China should first take the principle of unbalanced regional development into consideration.The fourth is that linking China’s carbon market to the international market should keep steps in line with international opening-up of China’s financing system.
Energy and economic impacts of an international multi-regional carbon market 免费阅读 下载全文 The establishment of a global multi-regional carbon market is considered to be a cost effective approach to facilitate global emission abatement and has been widely concerned.The ongoing planned linkage between the European Union’s carbon market and a new emission trading system in Australia in 2015 would be an important attempt to the practice of building up an international carbon market across different regions.To understand the abatement effect of such a global carbon market and to study its energy and economic impact on different market participants,this article adopts a global dynamic computable general equilibrium model with a detailed representation of the interactions between energy and economic systems.Our model includes 20 economic sectors and 19 regions,and describes in detail 17 energy technologies.Bundled with fossil fuel consumptions,the emission permits are considered to be essential inputs in each of the production and consumption activities in the economic system to simulate global carbon market policies.Carbon emission permits are endogenously set in the model,and can be traded between sectors and regions.Considering the current development of the global carbon market,this study takes 2020 as the study period.Four scenarios(reference scenario,independent carbon market scenario,Europe Union（EUh-Australia scenario,and China-EU-Australia scenario） are designed to evaluate the impact of the global carbon market involving China,the EU,and Australia.We find that the carbon price in the three countries varies a lot,from $32/tCO2 in Australia,to $17.5/tCO2 in the EU,and to $10/tCO2 in China.Though the relative emission reduction（3%） in China is lower than that in the EU（9%） and Australia（18%）,the absolute emission reduction in China is far greater than that in the EU and Australia.When China is included in the carbon market,which already includes the EU and Australia,the prevailing global carbon price falls from $22 per...Global progress in climate change adaptation policies and its implication for China 免费阅读 下载全文 This paper reviews the progress in climate change adaptation(CCA) policies both under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC) and in major regions and countries,including the EU and its major member countries,the influential developed countries in the Asia-Pacific region,the emerging economies and the least developed countries(LDCs).The progress made in China in CCA policies is also reviewed and compared with that in other countries.Finally,good international practices are proposed for China’s policy development.It is found that adaptation has been given the same priority as mitigation since the twenty-first century with regard to climate change-related actions.The topics related to adaptation in the international climate change negotiations under the UNFCCC have evolved from mechanisms for finance and technology development and transfer exclusively in the early stages to implementation of practical adaptation programs and actions.Since 2006,major developed and developing countries have frequently set forward specific CCA policies or general climate change policies involving adaptation in the form of laws,frameworks,strategies,and plans.The LDCs have also been working on National Adaptation Programmes of Action and subsequent National Adaptation Plans with the support from the financial mechanisms under the UNFCCC.Therefore,globally,it has become a common practice to develop national or regional policies to plan and guide CCA actions.China has established climate change policies involving adaptation at the national,regional,and sectorial levels since 2007.However,these policies have strong limitations in their knowledge base,strategic positioning,contents,and implementation mechanisms,e.g.lack of a sound knowledge base,an international perspective,clear responsibilities for policy implementation,and appropriate monitoring and evaluation mechanisms.It is recommended that China should further strengthen its technical capabilities in climat...The accounting method and application of CO2 emissions responsibility by the electricity sector at the provincial level in China 免费阅读 下载全文 When accounting the CO2 emissions responsibility of the electricity sector at the provincial level in China,it is of great significance to consider the scope of both producers’ and the consumers’ responsibility,since this will promote fairness in defining emission responsibility and enhance cooperation in emission reduction among provinces.This paper proposes a new method for calculating carbon emissions from the power sector at the provincial level based on the shared responsibility principle and taking into account interregional power exchange.This method can not only be used to account the emission responsibility shared by both the electricity production side and the consumption side,but it is also applicable for calculating the corresponding emission responsibility undertaken by those provinces with net electricity outflow and inflow.This method has been used to account for the carbon emissions responsibilities of the power sector at the provincial level in China since 2011.The empirical results indicate that compared with the production-based accounting method,the carbon emissions of major power-generation provinces in China calculated by the shared responsibility accounting method are reduced by at least 10%,but those of other power-consumption provinces are increased by 20% or more.Secondly,based on the principle of shared responsibility accounting,Inner Mongolia has the highest carbon emissions from the power sector while Hainan has the lowest.Thirdly,four provinces,including Inner Mongolia,Shanxi,Hubei and Anhui,have the highest carbon emissions from net electricity outflow- 14 million t in 2011,accounting for 74.42% of total carbon emissions from net electricity outflow in China.Six provinces,including Hebei,Beijing,Guangdong,Liaoning,Shandong,and Jiangsu,have the highest carbon emissions from net electricity inflow- 11 million t in 2011,accounting for 71.44% of total carbon emissions from net electricity inflow in China.Lastly,this paper has...CGE model-based analysis of the neutralized hybrid carbon policy and its decomposed effects on economic growth,carbon reduction,and energy utilization costs 免费阅读 下载全文 The hybrid policy is a flexible policy tool that combines features of carbon trading and carbon taxation.Its economic and environmental effects under China’s background are still not studied in detail.Given the exogenous carbon reduction targets,carbon prices,and carbon tax-rates,by computable general equilibrium modeling methods and factor decomposition methods,this article investigates direct and cascaded effects of the hybrid policy on economic growth,energy utilization,and carbon emission on the national level and the sector level,with China’s national input-output data-set.Stepwisely,policy scenarios with irrational estimated results are selectively excluded based on comprehensive evaluation among economic,carbon reduction and other policy targets.As a result,against national economic conditions in 2007,the hybrid policy,with a carbon reduction target of -10%,a carbon tax-rate of around $10,and a ceiling carbon price of $40,is highly recommended,because of its significant lower economic loss,lower energy utilization cost,and practical robustness against fluctuation of energy market and carbon market.Furthermore,by decomposition analysis,carbon reduction-related costs are decomposed into a direct part that includes carbon allowance price and carbon tax,and an indirect part as the energy price incremental induced by direct carbon costs.Gross carbon reduction may be decomposed into three parts such as energy intensity,economic scale,and technical progress.And,carbon taxation is the main policy tool that stimulates to improve the energy efficiency.
Loss and damage related to climate change:connotations and response mechanism 免费阅读 下载全文 Global mitigative and adaptive efforts have not been able to effectively address the adverse impacts caused by climate change.Therefore,a direct solution is needed to address the significant resulting loss and damage(L&D).During the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change held in Doha in 2012,the issue of responding to L&D arising from climate change gained sudden traction and became one of the key issues that affected the outcome of the convention.In this paper,a study on the definition and connotations of L&D arising from climate change was conducted,together with an analysis of its relationship with related concepts,namely impacts,vulnerability,and risks.This led to the proposal of an L&D conceptual model that is more comprehensive,with the recognition of the need to address the issue through effective supplementation of existing mitigative and adaptive efforts.A systematic elaboration of an L&D response mechanism was made based on politics,law,and the market,leading to a preliminary presentation of a possible format for an L&D mechanism.Potential academic research directions for L&D were also proposed that could serve as references for the establishment of international and national L&D response mechanisms and related research.
Global sustainable development report:background,progress,and recommendations 免费阅读 下载全文 Formulating the GSDR Formulating the GSDR(global sustainable development report) is one of the important achievements initiated by the "Rio +20" summit,and it has received worldwide attention.Nowadays,the international community has made a preliminary consensus on the orientation,key focuses,frameworks,and time schedule of GSDR.But,there are still great divergences in the relationship between GSDR and SDGs/post-MDGs(sustainable development goals/post-2015 development agenda),the GSDR organizational model,and whether countries writing their own national sustainable development report or not.After reviewing the whole process of formulating GSDR,some recommendations for writing GSDR from the Chinese perspective are proposed.The GSDR report should be a science-based and policy-making-oriented assessment report.The GSDR should focus on the priority areas that SDGs/post-MDGs have already identified as core fields. "Limited in number,easy to quantify,and universally applicable" comprehensive assessment indices of sustainable development should be proposed.A GSDR international working group of experts should be established.Countries should be encouraged to formulate the "National Sustainable Development Report" according to their own domestic practices.GSDR should be integrated with the high-level political forum(HLPF).Meanwhile,some suggestions on China’s participation in the GSDR process are also proposed.China’s 2030 mid-term and long-term national sustainable development goals(CSDGs) based on both the SDGs/post-MDGs and domestic practice are proposed.According to the implementation of national sustainable development goals,China should start the appropriate assessment of the progress and regularly report on the national sustainable development.Chinese scientists should be encouraged to actively participate in the process of GSDR.
Changing energy intensity in China:a decomposition analysis 免费阅读 下载全文 This study proposed a decomposition method based on the normalized quadratic shadow unit cost function to explore the determinants of the change in energy intensity in China from 1985 to 2010.The decomposition analysis indicates that (1) the improvement in technical efficiency dramatically reduced the energy intensity,whereas technological change played only a minor role,which could be attributed to a rebound effect;(2) the aggregated allocation effect was small because the change in the allocative distortion between capital and energy significantly enhanced energy intensity but was partly offset by the effect stemming from the change in the allocative distortion between capital and energy;and (3) the substitution of energy for labor increased energy intensity,but the aggregated substitution effect significantly reduced energy intensity because the substitution of capital for energy reduced energy intensity to a great extent.These findings were obtained at the national level and varied at die regional level.
Research on the hierarchical structure of the metropolitan system and economic development of the provincial capital urban circle in Shandong 免费阅读 下载全文 Regional development is the trend for future urbanization,and the urban circle is a highly efficient economic spatial pattern of regional development.This study selects statistical data of urban area population,GDP,and the output value of tertiary industry for seven cities in China- Jinan,Zibo,Tai’an,Laiwu,Dezhou,Liaocheng,and Binzhou- in the Shandong provincial capital urban circle from 2005 to 2009.It uses the principles and Zipf model,rank-size rule,and Lotka logarithmic model to analyze and study the hierarchical structure of the metropolitan system and economic development of the Shandong provincial capital urban circle.Based on the above research,this paper provides references for decisionmaking on enhancement of the metropolitan system structure,improvement in core city primacy index,the optimal adjustment of industrial structure and the optimal allocation of essential resources.
Ecological pressures on grassland ecosystems and their conservation strategies in Northern China 免费阅读 下载全文 In this study,we identified ecological pressures on grassland ecosystems and adaptive countermeasures in Northern China.Our research revealed that the main sources of these pressures included population growth,economic development,resources exploitation,and global climate change,with human-related activities being overriding factors.Overgrazing was an important reason for grassland imbalance,causing soil erosion and desertification,especially during the sensitive spring greening phase.In steppe zones,commercial coal mining was destructive to the ecological environment.Regarding long-term strategies,we recommend that policy-makers devote more consideration to a new conceptual approach for transforming grasslands through shifting the focus from die grassland’s traditional production functions to meir ecological functions.Applying this concept,adaptive countermeasures should be developed to reduce human impacts based on the environmental capacities of grasslands.Moreover,we recommend the development of environment-friendly industries and reduction of pressures from human activities as effective measures for maintaining the balance between sustainable economic development and grassland conservation.Lastly,we suggest that restoration of degraded grasslands should conform to the principle of natural vegetation to further improve the ecological adaptability of plants and ecosystem stability.This study is expected to provide scientific support for policy-makers engaged in grassland protection.
Submitting a paper to the Chinese Journal of Population Resources and Environment 免费阅读 下载全文 <正>The instructions below are specifically directed at authors who wish to submit a manuscript to Chinese Journal of Population Resources and Environment(CJPRE).For information about writing an article,preparing your manuscript and general guidance for authors,please visit the Author Services section of our website(http://joumalauthors.tandf.co.uk).