设为首页 | 加入收藏
文献检索:
  • Letter from the Editors-in-Chief
  • New era of treatment and evaluation of traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury
  • <正>Traumatic brain injury(TBI)and spinal cord injury(SCI)are leading causes of death and disability worldwide(Center for Disease Control,2006).Both injuries are induced by external traumatic event and likely happen together.After the primary traumatic incident,the secondary injury,including ischemic,inflammatory,metabolic and biochemical cascades,is likely more devastating(Blumbergs,1997).To date,all clinical trials have failed to cure TBI and SCI,due to the
  • Magnetic resonance imaging and cell-based neurorestorative therapy after brain injury
  • Restorative cell-based therapies for experimental brain injury, such as stroke and traumatic brain injury,substantially improve functional outcome. We discuss and review state of the art magnetic resonance imaging methodologies and their applications related to cell-based treatment after brain injury. We focus on the potential of magnetic resonance imaging technique and its associated challenges to obtain useful new information related to cell migration, distribution, and quantitation, as well as vascular and neuronal remodeling in response to cell-based therapy after brain injury. The noninvasive nature of imaging might more readily help with translation of cell-based therapy from the laboratory to the clinic.
  • A brief report on MRI investigation of experimental traumatic brain injury
  • Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of death and disability. This is a brief report based on a symposium presentation to the 2014 Chinese Neurotrauma Association Meeting in San Francisco, USA. It covers the work from our laboratory in applying multimodal MRI to study experimental traumatic brain injury in rats with comparisons made to behavioral tests and histology. MRI protocols include structural, perfusion, manganese-enhanced, diffusion-tensor MRI, and MRI of blood-brain barrier integrity and cerebrovascular reactivity.
  • The potential of neural transplantation for brain repair and regeneration following traumatic brain injury
  • Traumatic brain injury is a major health problem worldwide. Currently, there is no effective treatment to improve neural structural repair and functional recovery of patients in the clinic. Cell transplantation is a potential strategy to repair and regenerate the injured brain. This review article summarized recent development in cell transplantation studies for post-traumatic brain injury brain repair with varying types of cell sources. It also discussed the potential of neural transplantation to repair/promote recovery of the injured brain following traumatic brain injury.
  • Rho A/Rho kinase in spinal cord injury
  • A spinal cord injury refers to an injury to the spinal cord that is caused by a trauma instead of diseases. Spinal cord injury includes a primary mechanical injury and a much more complex secondary injury process involving inflammation, oxidation, excitotoxicity, and cell death. During the secondary injury, many signal pathways are activated and play important roles in mediating the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury. Among them, the Rho A/Rho kinase pathway plays a particular role in mediating spinal degeneration and regeneration. In this review, we will discuss the role and mechanism of Rho A/Rho kinase-mediated spinal cord pathogenesis, as well as the potential of targeting Rho A/Rho kinase as a strategy for promoting both neuroprotection and axonal regeneration.
  • Direct reprogramming of somatic cells into neural stem cells or neurons for neurological disorders
  • Direct reprogramming of somatic cells into neurons or neural stem cells is one of the most important frontier fields in current neuroscience research. Without undergoing the pluripotency stage, induced neurons or induced neural stem cells are a safer and timelier manner resource in comparison to those derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. In this prospective, we review the recent advances in generation of induced neurons and induced neural stem cells in vitro and in vivo and their potential treatments of neurological disorders.
  • The progress in optic nerve regeneration, where are we?
  • Optic nerve regeneration is an important area of research. It can be used to treat patients suffering from optic neuropathy and provides insights into the treatment of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. There are many hurdles impeding optic regeneration in mammals. The mammalian central nervous system is non-permissive to regeneration and intrinsically lacks the capacity for axonal regrowth. Any axonal injury also triggers a vicious cycle of apoptosis. Understanding these hurdles provides us with a rough framework to appreciate the essential steps to bring about optic nerve regeneration: enhancing neuronal survival, axon regeneration, remyelination and establishing functional synapses to the original neuronal targets. In this review article, we will go through current potential treatments for optic nerve regeneration, which includes neurotrophic factor provision, inflammatory stimulation, growth inhibition suppression, intracellular signaling modification and modeling of bridging substrates.更多还原
  • Glucocorticoids and nervous system plasticity
  • Glucocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptor(GC/GR) interactions alter numerous aspects of neuronal function. These consequences(e.g., anti-inflammatory vs. pro-inflammatory) can vary depending on the duration of GC exposure or central nervous system(CNS) injury model. In this review we discuss how GC/GR interactions impact neuronal recovery after a central or peripheral nerve injury and discuss how GC exposure duration can produce divergent CNS neuronal growth responses. Finally we consider how new findings on gender specific immune cell responses after a nerve injury could intersect with GC/GR interactions to impact pain processing.
  • SCYL pseudokinases in neuronal function and survival
  • The generation of mice lacking SCYL1 or SCYL2 and the identification of Scyl1 as the causative gene in the motor neuron disease mouse model muscle deficient(Scyl1mdf/mdf) demonstrated the importance of the SCY1-like family of protein pseudokinases in neuronal function and survival.Several essential cellular processes such as intracellular trafficking and nuclear tRNA export are thought to be regulated by SCYL proteins.However,whether deregulation of these processes contributes to the neurodegenerative processes associated with the loss of SCYL proteins is still unclear.Here,I briefly review the evidence supporting that SCYL proteins play a role in these processes and discuss their possible involvement in the neuronal functions of SCYL proteins.I also propose ways to determine the importance of these pathways for the functions of SCYL proteins in vivo.
  • Unmasking the responses of the stem cells and progenitors in the subventricular zone after neonatal and pediatric brain injuries
  • There is great interest in the regenerative potential of the neural stem cells and progenitors that populate the subventricular zone(SVZ). However, a comprehensive understanding of SVZ cell responses to brain injuries has been hindered by the lack of sensitive approaches to study the cellular composition of this niche. Here we review progress being made in deciphering the cells of the SVZ gleaned from the use of a recently designed flow cytometry panel that allows SVZ cells to be parsed into multiple subsets of progenitors as well as putative stem cells. We review how this approach has begun to unmask both the heterogeneity of SVZ cells as well as the dynamic shifts in cell populations with neonatal and pediatric brain injuries. We also discuss how flow cytometric analyses also have begun to reveal how specific cytokines, such as Leukemia inhibitory factor are coordinating SVZ responses to injury.
  • Tracking of iron-labeled human neural stem cells by magnetic resonance imaging in cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease
  • Human neural stem cells(h NSCs) derived from the ventral mesencephalon are powerful research tools and candidates for cell therapies in Parkinson’s disease. However, their clinical translation has not been fully realized due, in part, to the limited ability to track stem cell regional localization and survival over long periods of time after in vivo transplantation. Magnetic resonance imaging provides an excellent non-invasive method to study the fate of transplanted cells in vivo. For magnetic resonance imaging cell tracking, cells need to be labeled with a contrast agent, such as magnetic nanoparticles, at a concentration high enough to be easily detected by magnetic resonance imaging. Grafting of human neural stem cells labeled with magnetic nanoparticles allows cell tracking by magnetic resonance imaging without impairment of cell survival, proliferation, self-renewal, and multipotency. However, the results reviewed here suggest that in long term grafting, activated microglia and macrophages could contribute to magnetic resonance imaging signal by engulfing dead labeled cells or iron nanoparticles dispersed freely in the brain parenchyma over time.
  • Macrophage polarization in nerve injury: do Schwann cells play a role?
  • In response to peripheral nerve injury, the inflammatory response is almost entirely comprised of infiltrating macrophages. Macrophages are a highly plastic, heterogenic immune cell, playing an indispensable role in peripheral nerve injury, clearing debris and regulating the microenvironment to allow for efficient regeneration. There are several cells within the microenvironment that likely interact with macrophages to support their function – most notably the Schwann cell, the glial cell of the peripheral nervous system. Schwann cells express several ligands that are known to interact with receptors expressed by macrophages, yet the effects of Schwann cells in regulating macrophage phenotype remains largely unexplored. This review discusses macrophages in peripheral nerve injury and how Schwann cells may regulate their behavior.
  • Spinal cord concussion: studying the potential risks of repetitive injury
  • <正>What is spinal concussion?Spinal cord concussion is a variant of mild spinal cord injury,clinically designated as transient paraplegia or neurapraxia,and characterized by variable degrees of sensory impairment and motor weakness that typically resolve within 24–72 hours without permanent deficits(Del Bigio and Johnson,1989;Zwimpfer and Bernstein,1990;Torg et al.,1997).Accordingly,a grading system was developed based
  • Promoting neuronal regeneration using extracellular vesicles loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles
  • <正>Intercellular communication between neurons and glial cells via extracellular vesicles(EVs)as a novel mechanism of information transfer has been shown to be involved in regeneration processes within the central nervous system(CNS)(Rajendran et al.,2014).Hence,to take advantage of EV signaling for therapeutic applications appears to be a completely new approach to promote regeneration.One fundamental reason why influenc-
  • Developmental transcription factors in age-related CNS disease: a phoenix rising from the ashes?
  • <正>Few would doubt that understanding the developmental landscape from which a mature neuron is derived is essential to understand its biology.The temporal and spatial position of a cell from the very earliest stages of development predicts the unique combinations of growth factors it will subsequently be exposed to.This combination of factors determines the transcriptional platform set within the
  • The concentration game: differential effects of bioactive signaling in 2D and3D culture
  • <正>Traumatic injuries to the central nervous system,such as traumatic brain injury,spinal cord injury and stroke,have a high prevalence,enormous financial costs and lack clinical treatments that restore neurological function(Ma et al.,2014)These injuries trigger a series of secondary biochemical and cellular responses that ultimately lead to cellular death and the
  • Skeletal muscle activity and CNS neuro-plasticity
  • <正>The systemic health benefits of regular skeletal muscle activity are well documented.Increased skeletal muscle activity is associated with an improved systemic metabolic state,reduced incidence of diabetes and obesity,and improved function with age.Despite these known systemic benefits,many healthy people do not meet the recommended daily dose of skeletal muscle activity(exercise)needed to prevent systemic metabolic disease,leading to an in-
  • Exploiting kinase polypharmacology for nerve regeneration
  • <正>The human central nervous system(CNS)has a markedly poor capacity for regenerating its axons following injury.This appears to be due to two main causes:1)a developmentally regulated decline in regenerative capacity within mature CNS neurons,and 2)the presence of biological components that constitute barriers to axon regeneration(e.g.,growth-inhibitory molecules).Intrinsic alterations
  • Schwannomas provide insight into the role of p75~(NTR) and merlin in Schwann cells following nerve injury and during regeneration
  • <正>Peripheral nerve injury leads to Wallerian degeneration of severed axons,leaving the Schwann cell(SC)sheath behind.Denervated SCs may then either survive and remyelinate a regenerating axon,or they may undergo cell death.Because SCs provide trophic support and guidance cues to regenerating nerve fibers,SC loss severely hampers nerve regeneration(Hall,1986).Thus,significant work has sought to characterize the molecular
  • Role of neuronal gap junctions in NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity and ischemic neuronal death
  • <正>In the mammalian central nervous system(CNS)coupling of neurons by gap junctions and the expression of neuronal gap junction protein,connexin 36(Cx36)rapidly increases(usually during 1–2 hours)following a wide range of neuronal injuries,including ischemia,traumatic brain injury(TBI),spinal cord injury and epilepsy(reviewed in Belousov and Fontes,2013).Pharmacological blockade or genetic elimi-
  • Lipid mediators of inflammation in neurological injury: shifting the balance toward resolution
  • <正>Acquired neurological injuries initiate a pathological cascade of secondary injury processes,including inflammation,which continue for days to weeks following injury.Injury-induced neuroinflammation acts as a host defense mechanism contributing to the neutralization of the insult(removing offending factors)and restoring structure and function of the brain(establish homeostasis).The timing of these protective functions of the immune response is vital,since chronic inflammation
  • Nootropics with potential to(re)build neuroarchitecture
  • <正>Development of effective treatments for neurodegenerative disorders is a clinical conundrum that has puzzled many researchers.Currently available drugs target symptomatic relief rather than suppressing,ceasing or repairing the devastating neural damages.For Alzheimer’s disease,two classes of procognitive compounds are approved as a treatment.One class is acetylcholinesterase(ACh E)inhibitors,including tacrine,donepezil
  • Polarizing the immune system towards neuroprotection in brain ischemia
  • <正>The development of ischemic brain damage is dramatically affected by the immune system,whose activation occurs immediately after the insult and may last for several days,involving a complex interplay between soluble and cellular mediators(Amantea et al.,2015).Accordingly,recent expression profiling studies have revealed that the majority of the genes modulated in the blood of stroke patients participate in the regulation of innate immune responses(Brooks et al.,2014).Moreover,in the clinical
  • Future needs for informed consent in stem cell clinical trials in neurodegenerative diseases
  • <正>Translation of recent advances in stem cell research into clinical trials for restorative therapies for human disease is accelerating dramatically,with a strong focus upon neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease(PD),Huntington’s disease(HD),and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis(ALS).It is likely that first-in-human intracerebral transplantation of cells derived from human embryonic stem cells
  • How does resveratrol influence the genesis of some neurodegenerative diseases?
  • <正>Advancing age and increased lifespan of human populations worldwide in the mid-nineteenth century,have led to a significant increase in the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases one of the major cause of disability and death for most of those affected.Neurodegeneration is one of the biggest public health problems in modern society also because effective pharmacological interventions for prevention and treatment
  • Lingo-1: a novel target in therapy for Alzheimer's disease?
  • <正>Unraveling the causes underlying Alzheimer’s disease(AD)is certainly one of the greatest challenges of this century for researchers.With advances in medicine and technology,the world is experiencing a demographic shift towards a growing elderly population.With this increasingly ageing population,the number of individuals being affected by AD is booming.AD has a significant negative impact on the lives of the individuals with the disorder,as well as creating a significant social and
  • Mesenchymal stem cells require the peripheral immune system for immunomodulating effects in animal models of multiple sclerosis
  • <正>Multiple sclerosis(MS)is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system(CNS)that affects oligodendrocytes and myelin.Loss of myelin leads to progressive axonal damage and neuronal death resulting in neurodenegeration and functional disability.Several inflammatory factors influence the development of this neurological disorder.It is generally accepted that autoreactive T lymphocytes migrate towards the
  • Absence of galectin-3 attenuates neuroinflammation improving functional recovery after spinal cord injury
  • <正>After spinal cord injury(SCI),a cascade of events begins.At first,there is physical damage with disruption of the blood-brain barrier(BBB)and the integrity of the nervous tissue.The disruption of central nervous system(CNS)BBB alters the endothelial permeability,the protein and chemokines expression and the propensity to release in situ inflammatory cytokines,overcoming anti-inflammatory signals,facilitating the attraction
  • Neuroprotective effect of Shenqi Fuzheng injection pretreatment in aged rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury
  • Shenqi Fuzheng injection is extracted from the Chinese herbs Radix Astragali and Radix Codonopsis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Shenqi Fuzheng injection in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Aged rats(20–22 months) were divided into three groups: sham, model, and treatment. Shenqi Fuzheng injection or saline(40 m L/kg) was injected into the tail vein daily for 1 week, after which a cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury model was established. Compared with model rats that received saline, rats in the treatment group had smaller infarct volumes, lower brain water and malondialdehyde content, lower brain Ca2+ levels, lower activities of serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase, and higher superoxide dismutase activity. In addition, the treatment group showed less damage to the brain tissue ultrastructure and better neurological function. Our findings indicate that Shenqi Fuzheng injection exerts neuroprotective effects in aged rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and that the underlying mechanism relies on oxygen free radical scavenging and inhibition of brain Ca2+ accumulation.
  • Verbascoside promotes the regeneration of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase is a key enzyme in dopamine biosynthesis. Change in tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the nigrostriatal system is closely related to the occurrence and development of Parkinson’s disease. Verbascoside, an extract from Radix Rehmanniae Praeparata has been shown to be clinically effective in treating Parkinson’s disease. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. It is hypothesized that the effects of verbascoside on Parkinson’s disease are related to tyrosine hydroxylase expression change in the nigrostriatal system. Rat models of Parkinson’s disease were established and verbascoside(60 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally once a day. After 6 weeks of verbascoside treatment, rat rotational behavior was alleviated; tyrosine hydroxylase m RNA and protein expression and the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the rat right substantia nigra were significantly higher than the Parkinson’s model group. These findings suggest that the mechanism by which verbascoside treats Parkinson’s disease is related to the regeneration of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra.
  • Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with hyperbaric oxygen treatment for repair of traumatic brain injury
  • Transplantation of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells(UC-MSCs) for repair of traumatic brain injury has been used in the clinic. Hyperbaric oxygen(HBO) treatment has long been widely used as an adjunctive therapy for treating traumatic brain injury. UC-MSC transplantation combined with HBO treatment is expected to yield better therapeutic effects on traumatic brain injury. In this study, we established rat models of severe traumatic brain injury by pressurized fluid(2.5–3.0 atm impact force). The injured rats were then administered UC-MSC transplantation via the tail vein in combination with HBO treatment. Compared with monotherapy, aquaporin 4 expression decreased in the injured rat brain, but growth-associated protein-43 expression, calaxon-like structures, and CM-Dil-positive cell number increased. Following combination therapy, however, rat cognitive and neurological function significantly improved. UC-MSC transplantation combined with HBO therapyfor repair of traumatic brain injury shows better therapeutic effects than monotherapy and significantly promotes recovery of neurological functions.
  • Specific effects of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinaseinteracting protein 1 in neuronal axons
  • c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase(JNK)-interacting protein 3 plays an important role in brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tropomyosin-related kinase B(Trk B) anterograde axonal transport. It remains unclear whether JNK-interacting protein 1 mediates similar effects, or whether JNK-interacting protein 1 affects the regulation of Trk B anterograde axonal transport. In this study, we isolated rat embryonic hippocampus and cultured hippocampal neurons in vitro. Coimmunoprecipitation results demonstrated that JNK-interacting protein 1 formed Trk B complexes in vitro and in vivo. Immunocytochemistry results showed that when JNK-interacting protein 1 was highly expressed, the distribution of Trk B gradually increased in axon terminals. However, the distribution of Trk B reduced in axon terminals after knocking out JNK-interacting protein 1. In addition, there were differences in distribution of Trk B after JNK-interacting protein 1 was knocked out compared with not. However, knockout of JNK-interacting protein 1 did not affect the distribution of Trk B in dendrites. These findings confirm that JNK-interacting protein 1 can interact with Trk B in neuronal cells, and can regulate the transport of Trk B in axons, but not in dendrites.
  • Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) is a pervasive psychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. Adult male and female patients with ADHD are differentially affected, but few studies have explored the differences. The purpose of this study was to quantify differences between adult male and female patients with ADHD based on neuroimaging and connectivity analysis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained and preprocessed in 82 patients. Group-wise differences between male and female patients were quantified using degree centrality for different brain regions. The medial-, middle-, and inferior-frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, superior- and middle-temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and cuneus were identified as regions with significant group-wise differences. The identified regions were correlated with clinical scores reflecting depression and anxiety and significant correlations were found. Adult ADHD patients exhibit different levels of depression and anxiety depending on sex, and our study provides insight into how changes in brain circuitry might differentially impact male and female ADHD patients.
  • Does hemispheric lateralization influence therapeutic effects of transcranial direct current stimulation?
  • This study investigated the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation(t DCS) polarity depending on lateralized function of task property in normal individuals performing visuomotor and simple repetitive tasks. Thirty healthy participants with no neurological disorders were recruited to participate in this study. Participants were randomly allocated into active or control condition. For the active condition, t DCS intensity was 2 m A with stimulation applied for 15 minutes to the right hemisphere(t DCS condition). For the sham control, electrodes were placed in the same position, but the stimulator was turned off after 30 seconds(sham condition). The tapping and tracking task tests were performed before and after for both conditions. Univariate analysis revealed significant difference only in the tracking task. For direct comparison of both tasks within each group, the tracking task had significantly higher Z score than the tapping task in the t DCS group(P < 0.05). Thus, our study indicates that stimulation of the right hemisphere using t DCS can effectively improve visuomotor(tracking) task over simple repetitive(tapping) task.
  • Traumatic axonal injury of the medial lemniscus pathway in a patient with traumatic brain injury: validation by diffusion tensor tractography
  • <正>Traumatic brain injury(TBI)is a common disability-causing neurological disorder.For successful rehabilitation of TBI patients,a thorough evaluation of the presence and extent of neural injury is essential for determining the optimal rehabilitation strategy and accurate prognosis.However,it is difficult to determine the status of neural tracts.Diffusion tensor tractography(DTT),derived from diffusion tensor imaging
  • Spatiotemporal expression of Nogo-66 receptor after focal cerebral ischemia
  • Ng R, the receptor for the neurite outgrowth inhibitor Nogo-66, plays a critical role in the plasticity and regeneration of the nervous system after injury such as ischemic stroke. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the regional expression of Ng R in rat brain following middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO). Ng R protein expression was not observed in the center of the lesion, but was elevated in the marginal zone compared with control and sham-operated rats. The cerebral cortex and hippocampus(CA1, CA2, and CA3) showed the greatest expression of Ng R. Furthermore, Ng R expression was higher in the ipsilesional hemisphere than on the control side in the same coronal section. Although time-dependent changes in Ng R expression across brain regions had their own characteristics, the overall trend complied with the following rules: Ng R expression changes with time showed two peaks and one trough; the first peak in expression appeared between 1 and 3 days after MCAO; expression declined at 5 days; and the second peak occurred at 28 days.
  • Time representation of mitochondrial morphology and function after acute spinal cord injury
  • Changes in mitochondrial morphology and function play an important role in secondary damage after acute spinal cord injury. We recorded the time representation of mitochondrial morphology and function in rats with acute spinal cord injury. Results showed that mitochondria had an irregular shape, and increased in size. Mitochondrial cristae were disordered and mitochondrial membrane rupture was visible at 2–24 hours after injury. Fusion protein mitofusin 1 expression gradually increased, peaked at 8 hours after injury, and then decreased to its lowest level at 24 hours. Expression of dynamin-related protein 1, amitochondrial fission protein, showed the opposite kinetics. At 2–24 hours after acute spinal cord injury, malondialdehyde content, cytochrome c levels and caspase-3 expression were increased, but glutathione content, adenosine triphosphate content, Na+-K+-ATPase activity and mitochondrial membrane potential were gradually reduced. Furthermore, mitochondrial morphology altered during the acute stage of spinal cord injury. Fusion was important within the first 8 hours, but fission played a key role at 24 hours. Oxidative stress was inhibited, biological productivity was diminished, and mitochondrial membrane potential and permeability were reduced in the acute stage of injury. In summary, mitochondrial apoptosis is activated when the time of spinal cord injury is prolonged.
  • Treatment with analgesics after mouse sciatic nerve injury does not alter expression of wound healingassociated genes
  • Animal models of sciatic nerve injury are commonly used to study neuropathic pain as well as axon regeneration. Administration of post-surgical analgesics is an important consideration for animal welfare, but the actions of the analgesic must not interfere with the scientific goals of the experiment. In this study, we show that treatment with either buprenorphine or acetaminophen following a bilateral sciatic nerve crush surgery does not alter the expression in dorsal root ganglion(DRG) sensory neurons of a panel of genes associated with wound healing. These findings indicate that the post-operative use of buprenorphine or acetaminophen at doses commonly suggested by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees does not change the intrinsic gene expression response of DRG neurons to a sciatic nerve crush injury, for many wound healing-associated genes. Therefore, administration of post-operative analgesics may not confound the results of transcriptomic studies employing this injury model.
  • A novel bioactive nerve conduit for the repair of peripheral nerve injury
  • The use of a nerve conduit provides an opportunity to regulate cytokines, growth factors and neurotrophins in peripheral nerve regeneration and avoid autograft defects. We constructed a poly-D-L-lactide(PDLLA)-based nerve conduit that was modified using poly{(lactic acid)-co-[(glycolic acid)-alt-(L-lysine)]} and β-tricalcium phosphate. The effectiveness of this bioactive PDLLA-based nerve conduit was compared to that of PDLLA-only conduit in the nerve regeneration following a 10-mm sciatic nerve injury in rats. We observed the nerve morphology in the early period of regeneration, 35 days post injury, using hematoxylin-eosin and methylene blue staining. Compared with the PDLLA conduit, the nerve fibers in the PDLLA-based bioactive nerve conduit were thicker and more regular in size. Muscle fibers in the soleus muscle had greater diameters in the PDLLA bioactive group than in the PDLLA only group. The PDLLA-based bioactive nerve conduit is a promising strategy for repair after sciatic nerve injury.
  • Cerebrolysin improves sciatic nerve dysfunction in a mouse model of diabetic peripheral neuropathy
  • To examine the effects of Cerebrolysin on the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, we first established a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus by administering a high-glucose, high-fat diet and a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Mice defined as diabetic in this model were then treated with 1.80, 5.39 or 8.98 m L/kg of Cerebrolysin via intraperitoneal injections for 10 consecutive days. Our results demonstrated that the number, diameter and area of myelinated nerve fibers increased in the sciatic nerves of these mice after administration of Cerebrolysin. The results of several behavioral tests showed that Cerebrolysin dose-dependently increased the slope angle in the inclined plane test(indicating an improved ability to maintain body position), prolonged tail-flick latency and foot-licking time(indicating enhanced sensitivity to thermal and chemical pain, respectively, and reduced pain thresholds), and increased an index of sciatic nerve function in diabetic mice compared with those behavioral results in untreated diabetic mice. Taken together, the anatomical and functional results suggest that Cerebrolysin ameliorated peripheral neuropathy in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  • Dexamethasone prevents vascular damage in earlystage non-freezing cold injury of the sciatic nerve
  • Non-freezing cold injury is a prevalent cause of peripheral nerve damage, but its pathogenic mechanism is poorly understood, and treatment remains inadequate. Glucocorticoids have anti-inflammatory and lipid peroxidation-inhibiting properties. We therefore examined whether dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid compound, would alleviate early-stage non-freezing cold injury of the sciatic nerve. We established Wistar rat models of non-freezing cold injury by exposing the left sciatic nerve to cold(3–5°C) for 2 hours, then administered dexamethasone(3 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to half of the models. One day after injury, the concentration of Evans blue tracer in the injured sciatic nerve of rats that received dexamethasone was notably lower than that in the injured sciatic nerve of rats that did not receive dexamethasone; neither Evans blue dye nor capillary stenosis was observed in the endoneurium, but myelinated nerve fibers were markedly degenerated in the injured sciatic nerve of animals that received dexamethasone. After dexamethasone administration, however, endoneurial vasculopathy was markedly improved, although damage to the myelinated nerve fiber was not alleviated. These findings suggest that dexamethasone protects the blood-nerve barrier, but its benefit in non-freezing cold injury is limited to the vascular system.
  • Angiogenesis in tissue-engineered nerves evaluated objectively using MICROFIL perfusion and micro-CT scanning
  • Angiogenesis is a key process in regenerative medicine generally, as well as in the specific field of nerve regeneration. However, no convenient and objective method for evaluating the angiogenesis of tissue-engineered nerves has been reported. In this study, tissue-engineered nerves were constructed in vitro using Schwann cells differentiated from rat skin-derived precursors as supporting cells and chitosan nerve conduits combined with silk fibroin fibers as scaffolds to bridge 10-mm sciatic nerve defects in rats. Four weeks after surgery, three-dimensional blood vessel reconstructions were made through MICROFIL perfusion and micro-CT scanning, and parameter analysis of the tissue-engineered nerves was performed. New blood vessels grew into the tissue-engineered nerves from three main directions: the proximal end, the distal end, and the middle. The parameter analysis of the three-dimensional blood vessel images yielded several parameters, including the number, diameter, connection, and spatial distribution of blood vessels. The new blood vessels were mainly capillaries and microvessels, with diameters ranging from 9 to 301 μm. The blood vessels with diameters from 27 to 155 μm accounted for 82.84% of the new vessels. The microvessels in the tissue-engineered nerves implanted in vivo were relatively well-identified using the MICROFIL perfusion and micro-CT scanning method, which allows the evaluation and comparison of differences and changes of angiogenesis in tissue-engineered nerves implanted in vivo.
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor: an attractive target in the treatment of hypoxic/ischemic brain injury
  • Cerebral hypoxia or ischemia results in cell death and cerebral edema, as well as other cellular reactions such as angiogenesis and the reestablishment of functional microvasculature to promote recovery from brain injury. Vascular endothelial growth factor is expressed in the central nervous system after hypoxic/ischemic brain injury, and is involved in the process of brain repair via the regulation of angiogenesis, neurogenesis, neurite outgrowth, and cerebral edema, which all require vascular endothelial growth factor signaling. In this review, we focus on the role of the vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway in the response to hypoxic/ischemic brain injury, and discuss potential therapeutic interventions.
  • Information for Authors-Neural Regeneration Research
  • Letter from the Editors-in-Chief(Kwok-fai So;Xiao-ming Xu)
    New era of treatment and evaluation of traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury(Zhifeng Kou;Dong Sun)
    Magnetic resonance imaging and cell-based neurorestorative therapy after brain injury(Quan Jiang)
    A brief report on MRI investigation of experimental traumatic brain injury(Timothy Q.Duong;Lora T.Watts)
    The potential of neural transplantation for brain repair and regeneration following traumatic brain injury(Dong Sun)
    Rho A/Rho kinase in spinal cord injury(Xiangbing Wu[1,3,4];Xiao-ming Xu[1,2,3,4])
    Direct reprogramming of somatic cells into neural stem cells or neurons for neurological disorders(Shaoping Hou;Paul Lu[2,3])
    The progress in optic nerve regeneration, where are we?(Jennifer Wei Huen Shum;Kai Liu;Kwok-fai So[1,3])
    Glucocorticoids and nervous system plasticity(Kathryn M.Madalena[1,2];Jessica K.Lerch[1,2])
    SCYL pseudokinases in neuronal function and survival(Stephane Pelletier)
    Unmasking the responses of the stem cells and progenitors in the subventricular zone after neonatal and pediatric brain injuries(Mariano Guardia Clausi;Ekta Kumari;Steven W.Levison)
    Tracking of iron-labeled human neural stem cells by magnetic resonance imaging in cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease(Milagros Ramos-Gómez[1,2];Alberto Martínez-Serrano)
    Macrophage polarization in nerve injury: do Schwann cells play a role?(Jo Anne Stratton[1,2,3];Prajay T.Shah[2,3])
    Spinal cord concussion: studying the potential risks of repetitive injury(Itzhak Fischer;Christopher Haas;Ramesh Raghupathi;Ying Jin)
    Promoting neuronal regeneration using extracellular vesicles loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles(Jenni Neubert;Jana Glumm)
    Developmental transcription factors in age-related CNS disease: a phoenix rising from the ashes?(Robert B.White;Meghan G.Thomas[2,3])
    The concentration game: differential effects of bioactive signaling in 2D and3D culture(Laura A.Smith Callahan)
    Skeletal muscle activity and CNS neuro-plasticity(Rachel Zhorne;Shauna Dudley-Javoroski;Richard K.Shields)
    Exploiting kinase polypharmacology for nerve regeneration(Hassan Al-Ali;John L.Bixby[2,3];Vance P.Lemmon)
    Schwannomas provide insight into the role of p75~(NTR) and merlin in Schwann cells following nerve injury and during regeneration(Elise Cheng;Marlan R.Hansen)
    Role of neuronal gap junctions in NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity and ischemic neuronal death(Andrei B.Belousov;Joseph D.Fontes)
    Lipid mediators of inflammation in neurological injury: shifting the balance toward resolution(Jordan L.Harrison;Rachel K.Rowe[2,3];Jonathan Lifshitz)
    Nootropics with potential to(re)build neuroarchitecture(Kyoko Koshibu)
    Polarizing the immune system towards neuroprotection in brain ischemia(Diana Amantea)
    Future needs for informed consent in stem cell clinical trials in neurodegenerative diseases(Natalie Hellmers;Yaa Obeng-Aduasare;Inmaculada de Melo-Martín;Claire Henchcliffe)
    How does resveratrol influence the genesis of some neurodegenerative diseases?(Ester Tellone;Antonio Galtieri;Annamaria Russo;Silvana Ficarra)
    Lingo-1: a novel target in therapy for Alzheimer's disease?(Francesca Fernandez-Enright;Jessica L.Andrews)
    Mesenchymal stem cells require the peripheral immune system for immunomodulating effects in animal models of multiple sclerosis(Laura Salinas Tejedor;Thomas Skripuletz;Martin Stangel;Viktoria Gudi)
    Absence of galectin-3 attenuates neuroinflammation improving functional recovery after spinal cord injury(Caio Andrade Prins;Fernanda Martins Almeida;Ana Maria Blanco Martinez)
    Neuroprotective effect of Shenqi Fuzheng injection pretreatment in aged rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury(Ying-min Cai;Yong Zhang;Peng-bo Zhang;Lu-ming Zhen;Xiao-ju Sun;Zhi-ling Wang;Ren-yan Xu;Rong-liang Xue)
    Verbascoside promotes the regeneration of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra(Jian-qing Liang;Li Wang;Jian-cheng He;Xian-dong Hua)
    Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with hyperbaric oxygen treatment for repair of traumatic brain injury(Hai-xiao Zhou;Zhi-gang Liu;Xiao-jiao Liu;Qian-xue Chen)
    Specific effects of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinaseinteracting protein 1 in neuronal axons(Shu Tang;Qiang Wen;Xiao-jian Zhang;Quan-cheng Kan)
    Connectivity differences between adult male and female patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder according to resting-state functional MRI(Bo-yong Park;Hyunjin Park[2,3])
    Does hemispheric lateralization influence therapeutic effects of transcranial direct current stimulation?(Yong Hyun Kwon;Kyung Woo Kang;Na Kyung Lee;Sung Min Son)
    Traumatic axonal injury of the medial lemniscus pathway in a patient with traumatic brain injury: validation by diffusion tensor tractography(Sung Ho Jang;Hyeok Gyu Kwon)
    Spatiotemporal expression of Nogo-66 receptor after focal cerebral ischemia(Yue Cao;Ya-xian Dong;Jie Xu;Guo-liang Chu;Zhi-hua Yang;Yan-ming Liu)
    Time representation of mitochondrial morphology and function after acute spinal cord injury(Zhi-qiang Jia;Gang Li;Zhen-yu Zhang;Hao-tian Li;Ji-quan Wang;Zhong-kai Fan;Gang Lv)
    Treatment with analgesics after mouse sciatic nerve injury does not alter expression of wound healingassociated genes(Matt C.Danzi;Dario Motti;Donna L.Avison;John L.Bixby[1,3,4];Vance P.Lemmon[1,3])
    A novel bioactive nerve conduit for the repair of peripheral nerve injury(Bin-bin Li[1,2];Yi-xia Yin[1,2];Qiong-jiao Yan[1,2];Xin-yu Wang[1,2];Shi-pu Li[1,2])
    Cerebrolysin improves sciatic nerve dysfunction in a mouse model of diabetic peripheral neuropathy(Han-yu Dong;Xin-mei Jiang;Chun-bo Niu;Lin Du;Jun-yan Feng;Fei-yong Jia[1,2])
    Dexamethasone prevents vascular damage in earlystage non-freezing cold injury of the sciatic nerve(Hao Li;Lei Zhang;Min Xu)
    Angiogenesis in tissue-engineered nerves evaluated objectively using MICROFIL perfusion and micro-CT scanning(Hong-kui Wang[1,2];Ya-xian Wang;Cheng-bin Xue;Zhen-mei-yu Li;Jing Huang;Ya-hong Zhao;Yu-min Yang;Xiao-song Gu[1,2])
    Vascular endothelial growth factor: an attractive target in the treatment of hypoxic/ischemic brain injury(Hui Guo[1,2];Hui Zhou[1,2];Jie Lu;Yi Qu[1,2];Dan Yu[1,2];Yu Tong[1,2])
    Information for Authors-Neural Regeneration Research
    《中国神经再生研究:英文版》封面

    地  址:沈阳1234邮政信箱

    邮政编码:110004

    电  话:024-23394178 23380579

    电子邮件:sjzs100@163.com

    国际标准刊号:issn 1673-5374

    国内统一刊号:cn 11-5422/r

    单  价:16.00

    定  价:192.00


    关于我们 | 网站声明 | 合作伙伴 | 联系方式 | IP查询
    金月芽期刊网 2017 触屏版 电脑版 京ICP备13008804号-2