Guest Editorial - Special issue on Ground Control in Mining 免费阅读 下载全文
Dynamic failure in coal seams Implications of coal composition for bump susceptibility 免费阅读 下载全文 As a contributing factor in the dynamic failure(bumping) of coal pillars,a bump-prone coal seam has been described as one that is ‘‘uncleated or poorly cleated,strong...that sustains high stresses."Despite extensive research regarding engineering controls to help reduce the risk for coal bumps,there is a paucity of research related to the properties of coal itself and how those properties might contribute to the mechanics of failures. Geographic distribution of reportable dynamic failure events reveals a highly localized clustering of incidents despite widespread mining activities. This suggests that unique,contributing geologic characteristics exist within these regions that are less prevalent elsewhere. To investigate a new approach for identifying coal characteristics that might lead to bumping,a principal component analysis(PCA) was performed on 306 coal records from the Pennsylvania State Coal Sample database to determine which characteristics were most closely linked with a positive history of reportable bumping. Selected material properties from the data records for coal samples were chosen as variables for the PCA and included petrographic,elemental,and molecular properties. Results of the PCA suggest a clear correlation between low organic sulfur content and the occurrence of dynamic failure,and a secondary correlation between volatile matter and dynamic failure phenomena. The ratio of volatile matter to sulfur in the samples shows strong correlation with bump-prone regions,with a minimum threshold value of approximately 20,while correlations determined for other petrographic and elemental variables were more ambiguous. Results suggest that the composition of the coal itself is directly linked to how likely a coal is to have experienced a reportable dynamic failure event. These compositional controls are distinct from other previously established engineering and geologic criteria and represent a missing piece to the bump prediction puzzle.
Geotechnical risk management to prevent coal outburst in room-and-pillar mining 免费阅读 下载全文 A coal outburst is a severe safety hazard in room-and-pillar mining under deep cover. It is more likely to occur during pillar retreating. Multi-seam mining dramatically increases the risk of coal outburst within the influence zones created by remnant pillars and gob-solid boundaries. Though coal outburst is generally associated with heavy loading of coal pillars,its occurrence is difficult to predict. Risk management provides a proactive tool to minimize coal outburst in room-and-pillar mining under deep cover. Risk assessment is the first step in identifying and quantifying outburst risk factors. The primary risk factors for coal outburst are overburden depth,roof and floor strength,geological anomalies,mining type,multi-seam mining,and panel width. A risk assessment chart can be used to proactively screen out mining sections with high risk of coal outburst for further analysis. Gob-solid boundaries and remnant pillars are critical factors in evaluation of the coal outburst risk of multi-seam mining. Risk identification,risk assessment,geologic influence mapping,geotechnical evaluation,risk analysis,risk mitigation,and monitoring are essential elements of coal outburst risk management process. Training is an integral part of risk management for risk identification and communication between all the stakeholders including management,technical and safety personnel,and miners.
Inflatable rock bolt bond strength versus rock mass rating （RMR）： A comparative analysis of pull-out testing data from underground mines in Nevada 免费阅读 下载全文 The purpose of this paper is to establish confidence in anticipated minimum bond strength for inflatable rock bolts by comparing the bond strength to variable geotechnical conditions using the rock mass rating(RMR) system. To investigate a correlation between these parameters,the minimum bond strength of pull-out tested inflatable rock bolts was compared to the RMR of the rock in which these bolts were placed. Bond strength vs. RMR plots indicate that expected minimum bond strength is positively correlated with RMR; however,the correlation is not strong. Cumulative percent graphs indicate that 97% of pull-out tests result in a minimum bond strength of 3.3 and 1.7 ton/m in RMR P 45 and <45,respectively.Although lower bond strengths are more commonly encountered in low RMR ground,high bond strengths are possible as well,yielding higher variability in bond strengths in low RMR ground. Bond strength of friction bolts relies on contact between the rock bolt and drill hole. Experience in Nevada indicates that RMR is known to affect both the quality and consistency of drill holes which likely affects bond strength. Drilling and bolting in low RMR ground is more sensitive to drilling and bolting practices,and strategies for maximizing bond strength in these conditions are discussed.
Analysis of alternatives for using cable bolts as primary support at two low-seam coal mines 免费阅读 下载全文 Cable bolts are sometimes used in low-seam coal mines to provide support in difficult ground conditions.This paper describes cable bolting solutions at two low-seam coal mines in similar ground conditions.Both mines used support systems incorporating cable bolts as part of the primary support system.Two original cable bolt based support systems as well as two modified systems are evaluated to estimate their ability to prevent large roof falls. One of the support systems incorporated passive cable bolts,while the other used pre-tensioned cable bolts. The results and experience at the mines showed that the modified systems provided improved stability over the original support systems. The presence of the cable bolts is the most important contribution to stability against large roof falls,rather than the details of the support pattern. It was also found that a heavy steel channel can improve the safety of the system because of the ‘sling’ action it provides. Additionally,the analysis showed that fully-grouted rebar bolts load much earlier than the cable bolts,and pre-tensioning of the cable bolts can result in a more uniform distribution of loading in the roof.
Transitional geology and its effects on development and longwall mining in Pittsburgh Seam 免费阅读 下载全文 This paper presents the geologic and ground control challenges that were encountered by Consol Energy’s coal mining operations in southwestern Pennsylvania,USA. Geologic encounters,such as sandstoneto-limestone geology transition,massive sandstone channels,shale channels,pyritic rich green claystone,laminated roof,and soft floor,have significantly impacted the development and longwall mining in Consol’s Pittsburgh Seam coal mines. Experience from different mines shows that,in the sandstone-to-limestone geology transition zone,1.83 m high-tension,fully-grouted primary bolts employed along with 4.88 m center cable bolts at every other strap greatly improved beam building and ensured proper anchorage into the competent roof. Hydraulic fracturing of the massive sandstone was often necessary to enhance caving of the massive sandstone behind the shields to relieve pressure at the face. The presence of soft floor coupled with presence of thick floor coal and deep cover,induced excessive headgate convergence during retreat of the first right hand longwall panel. In all,it is important to explore the roof and in-seam geology in detail to delineate normal and anomalous geologic conditions prior to and during development. With diligent geologic reconnaissance,geotechnical monitoring,and assessment,site-specific geotechnical solutions have been provided to mine operations to improve safety and productivity.
Occurrence, predication, and control of coal burst events in the U.S. 免费阅读 下载全文
Evaluating the risk of coal bursts in underground coal mines 免费阅读 下载全文 Coal bursts involve the sudden,violent ejection of coal or rock into the mine workings. They are almost always accompanied by a loud noise,like an explosion,and ground vibration. Bursts are a particular hazard for miners because they typically occur without warning. Despite decades of research,the sources and mechanics of these events are not well understood,and therefore they are difficult to predict and control. Experience has shown,however,that certain geologic and mining factors are associated with an increased likelihood of a coal burst. A coal burst risk assessment consists of evaluating the degree to which these risk factors are present,and then identifying appropriate control measures to mitigate the hazard. This paper summarizes the U.S. and international experience with coal bursts,and describes the known risk factors in detail. It includes a framework that can be used to guide the risk assessment process.
Parametric study on the axial performance of a fully grouted cable bolt with a new pull-out test 免费阅读 下载全文
Investigations into the corrosive environments contributing to premature failure of Australian coal mine rock bolts 免费阅读 下载全文 University of New South Wales(UNSW Australia) had been involved in the study of premature failure of rock bolts in Australia coal mines from the initial identification of the problem in 1999. Rock bolt steel changes over the last decade appear to have not reduced the incidence of failures. A broadened UNSW research project funded by the Australian Research Council(ARC) and Industry has targeted finding the environmental causes through extensive field and laboratory experiments. This paper describes the field studies conducted in underground coal mines,in particular attempts to measure the contribution to corrosion from groundwater,mineralogy and microbial activity. Various underground survey techniques were used to determine the extent of broken bolts,with the presence of both stress corrosion cracking(SCC) and localized deep pitting making no single technique suitable on their own.Groundwater found dripping from bolts across various coalfields in Australia were found to be not aggressive and known groundwater corrosivity classification systems did not correlate to where broken bolts were found. In-hole coupon bolts placed in roof strata containing claystone bands confirmed the clay as being a major contributor to corrosion. Microbes capable of contributing to steel corrosion were found to be present in groundwater,and culturing of the microbes taken from in-situ coupon bolts proved that the bacteria was present on the bolt surface. An ‘in-hole bolt corrosion coupon’ development by the project may have multiple benefits of (1) helping quantify newly developed corrosivity classification systems,(2) providing an in-situ ground support corrosion monitoring tool,and (3) for testing possible corrosion protection solutions.
Effect of discontinuities characteristics on coal mine stability and sustainability： A rock fall prediction approach 免费阅读 下载全文 Rock fall related accidents continue to occur in coal mines,although artificial support mechanisms have been used extensively. Roof stability is primarily determined in many underground mines by a limited number of methods that often resort to subjective criteria. It is argued in this paper that stability conditions of mine roof strata,as a key factor in sustainability in coal mines,must be determined by a survey which proactively investigates fundamental aspects of said mine. Failure of rock around the opening happens as a result of both high rock stress conditions and the presence of structural discontinuities. The properties of such discontinuities affect the engineering behavior of rock masses causing wedges or blocks to fall from the roof or sliding out of the walls. A practical rule-based approach to assess the risk of a roof fall is proposed in the paper. The method is based on the analysis of structural data and the geometry and stability of wedges in underground coal mines. In this regard,an accident causing a huge collapse in a coal mine leading to 4 fatalities is illustrated by way of a case study. Horizontal and vertical profiles are prepared by geophysical methods to define the falling zone and its boundaries. The collapse is then modeled by the use of sophisticated computer programs in order to identify the causes of the accident.
Numerical simulation of overburden and surface movements for Wongawilli strip pillar mining 免费阅读 下载全文 The Wongawilli strip pillar mining technique,which combines the strip pillar mining layout and Wongawilli mining technology,is a new high efficient mining technology for mining under surface structures. The Wongawilli strip pillar mining technique was studied in this paper using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. As an example,the geological and mining conditions of a coal mine were used to design the Wongawilli strip pillar plans,including the support parameters of the entries and the mining technology. In order to control the surrounding rocks and manage the roof effectively during coal mining,the stress fields,displacement fields and plastic zones were studied by numerical simulation. The stress fields,displacement fields,and plastic zones generated by Wongawilli strip pillar mining were obtained. And the surface movement and deformation were also determined after mining was completed and its effects on surface structures were analyzed and evaluated. The results demonstrate that it is feasible to mine under surface structures with the Wongawilli strip pillar mining technique. This mining method can protect the surface structures from damages.
Analysis of the current rib support practices and techniques in U.S. coal mines 免费阅读 下载全文 Design of rib support systems in U.S. coal mines is based primarily on local practices and experience. A better understanding of current rib support practices in U.S. coal mines is crucial for developing a sound engineering rib support design tool. The objective of this paper is to analyze the current practices of rib control in U.S. coal mines. Twenty underground coal mines were studied representing various coal basins,coal seams,geology,loading conditions,and rib control strategies. The key findings are:(1) any rib design guideline or tool should take into account external rib support as well as internal bolting;(2) rib bolts on their own cannot contain rib spall,especially in soft ribs subjected to significant load—external rib control devices such as mesh are required in such cases to contain rib sloughing;(3) the majority of the studied mines follow the overburden depth and entry height thresholds recommended by the Program Information Bulletin 11-29 issued by the Mine Safety and Health Administration;(4) potential rib instability occurred when certain geological features prevailed—these include draw slate and/or bone coal near the rib/roof line,claystone partings,and soft coal bench overlain by rock strata;(5) 47% of the studied rib spall was classified as blocky—this could indicate a high potential of rib hazards; and(6) rib injury rates of the studied mines for the last three years emphasize the need for more rib control management for mines operating at overburden depths between 152.4 m and 304.8 m.
Characterization of tensile and shear loading on indented PC-strand cable bolts 免费阅读 下载全文 The tensile and shear strength of intrinsic bolting support systems has always been a major concern of designers. A comprehensive laboratory testing program was designed to evaluate the tensile and shear strength of individual wires and completely wound PC-strand cables. PC-strand cables with smooth wires and the recent anchorage enhancement innovation of indentation were evaluated and compared. The testing protocol detailed in ISO Standard 15630 utilizes a mandrel system that was investigated at 3different diameters which alters the wire to mandrel ratio from 2:1 to 9:1. The results demonstrate that the difference between smooth and indented wires is statistically insignificant when larger diameter mandrels are used,and that indentation does not adversely affect strand properties and performance.Insight into the shearing mechanism and evaluation techniques are discussed with the introduction of triaxial loading to describe the PC-strand tensile and shearing mechanisms. Another important result indicates that the shear strength of PC-strand cable bolting systems has a greater shear strength value than traditional steel bar bolting systems.
Measurement of shear movements in the overburden strata ahead of longwall mining 免费阅读 下载全文 An underground coal mine located in New South Wales has a target coal seam located 160–180 m deep directly below a 16–20 m thick conglomerate unit that has been associated with significant periodic weighting events on the longwall face. As part of the investigations to better understand the causes of periodic weighting at the mine,inclinometers capable of measuring horizontal shear movements through the full section of the overburden strata were installed ahead of mining at two locations approximately1 km apart above the centre of two longwall panels. These inclinometers were monitored as the longwall approached each site. This paper presents the details of the installation,the results of the inclinometer monitoring at both sites,and the insights that these measurements provide for overburden behaviour about longwall panels. Horizontal shear movements were observed to develop on shear horizons that correlate closely across the two sites suggesting a mechanism that is consistent across a large area of the mine. Shear movements were observed to develop on a single horizon near the top of the conglomerate strata that was mobilised almost immediately after initial formation of the longwall goaf at a distance of 425 m ahead of the longwall face.
In-situ stress measurements and stress change monitoring to monitor overburden caving behaviour and hydraulic fracture pre-conditioning 免费阅读 下载全文 A coal mine in New South Wales is longwall mining 300 m wide panels at a depth of 160–180 m directly below a 16–20 m thick conglomerate strata. As part of a strategy to use hydraulic fracturing to manage potential windblast and periodic caving hazards associated with these conglomerate strata,the in-situ stresses in the conglomerate were measured using ANZI strain cells and the overcoring method of stress relief. Changes in stress associated with abutment loading and placement of hydraulic fractures were also measured using ANZI strain cells installed from the surface and from underground. Overcore stress measurements have indicated that the vertical stress is the lowest principal stress so that hydraulic fractures placed ahead of mining form horizontally and so provide effective pre-conditioning to promote caving of the conglomerate strata. Monitoring of stress changes in the overburden strata during longwall retreat was undertaken at two different locations at the mine. The monitoring indicated stress changes were evident 150 m ahead of the longwall face and abutment loading reached a maximum increase of about7.5 MPa. The stresses ahead of mining change gradually with distance to the approaching longwall and in a direction consistent with the horizontal in-situ stresses. There was no evidence in the stress change monitoring results to indicate significant cyclical forward abutment loading ahead of the face. The forward abutment load determined from the stress change monitoring is consistent with the weight of overburden strata overhanging the goaf indicated by subsidence monitoring.
Failure mechanism and control technology of longwall coalface in large-cutting-height mining method 免费阅读 下载全文 The stability control of longwall coalface is the key technology of large-cutting-height mining method.Therefore,a systematic study of the factors that affect coalface stability and its control technology is required in the development of large-cutting-height mining method in China. After the practical field observation and years of study,it was found that the more than 95% of failures in coalface are shear failure. The shear failure analysis model of coalface has been established,that can perform systematic study among factors such as mining height,coal mass strength,roof load,support resistance,and face flipper protecting plate horizontal force. Meanwhile,sensitivity analysis of factors influencing coalface stability showed that improving support capacity,cohesion of coal mass and decreasing roof load of coalface are the key to improve coalface stability. Numerical simulation of the factors affecting coalface stability has been performed using UDEC software and the results are consistent with the theoretical analysis. The coalface reinforcement technology of large-cutting-height mining method using the grouting combined with coir rope is presented. Laboratory tests have been carried out to verify its reinforcement effect and practical application has been implemented in several coal mines with good results.It has now become the main technology to reduce longwall coalface failure of large-cutting-height mining method.
Void fill techniques for stabilizing roof conditions during longwall recovery 免费阅读 下载全文 It has been proven that longwall faces can be moved safely and efficiently. However,abutment pressures and poor ground control conditions can halt operations and be hazardous to coal miners. Recently at a mine in Southwestern Pennsylvania,roof material collapsed above shields that created two large voids and caused major challenges for shield recovery. A unique,engineering solution was developed that utilized a modified concrete material to fill the voids,creating stability in the affected area. The many phases of this project included the construction phase,void pumping,cutting out,and bolting of the concrete material. This project eliminated the hazards associated with bolting the recovery face and removing shields in adverse conditions,making it possible for the mine operator to safely complete the longwall move.
Volumetric measurement of rock movement using photogrammetry 免费阅读 下载全文 NIOSH ground control safety research program at Spokane,Washington,is exploring applications of photogrammetry to rock mass and support monitoring. This paper describes two ways photogrammetric techniques are being used. First,photogrammetric data of laboratory testing is being used to correlate energy input and support deformation. This information can be used to infer remaining support toughness after ground deformation events. This technique is also demonstrated in a field application.Second,field photogrammetric data is compared to crackmeter data from a deep underground mine.Accuracies were found to average 8 mm,but have produced results within 0.2 mm of true displacement,as measured by crackmeters. Application of these techniques consists of monitoring overall fault activity by monitoring multiple points around the crackmeter. A case study is provided in which a crackmeter is clearly shown to have provided insufficient information regarding overall fault ground deformation.Photogrammetry is proving to be a useful ground monitoring tool due to its unobtrusiveness and ease of use.
Design of primary ground support during roadway development using empirical databases 免费阅读 下载全文 There have been many design practices utilised within the coal mining industry to arrive at the minimum densities of primary ground support required during roadway development. This paper demonstrates the practical use of empirical databases,and focuses on the main drivers for ground support as demonstrated in conceptual models. Golder Associates’ empirical databases used for ground support include a primary roof support database and a primary rib support database. Both are based on successful ground support designs installed in mines in Australia,the US,the UK,South Africa,New Zealand,and Europe. The term‘‘successful" refers to those designs that were used on a repeated basis for the purpose of roadway development. The primary roof support database indicates that the major factors influencing successful roof support designs are roof competency,expressed as the coal mine roof rating(CMRR),and in situ stress.In regard to the primary rib support database,it is evident from the current database that the primary factors affecting the capacity of rib support required for a successful design are roadway height and depth of cover. These databases have been used to help determine the minimum primary ground support designs required at many mine sites in Australasia,Europe,and the US. This paper will demonstrate the effectiveness and practicality of these databases at two selected mines in Australia and the US. In order to improve the primary rib support database,this paper will also propose a new rib deformation rating based on the addition of site specific coal strength data for the Australian mines. The proposed rating attempts to capture the main variables that define the behaviour of a buckling column.
Trial of small gateroad pillar in top coal caving longwall mining of large mining height 免费阅读 下载全文 Coal seams in Tashan Mine of Datong Coal Group in China average 15 m thick and have been mined by the top coal caving longwall mining method of large mining height. Mining height was 3.8 m and the top coal caving height was 11.2 m. The gateroad pillar between panels was 38 m. During retreat mining,serious bumps occurred in the gateroads on both sides of the pillar affecting safety production. Therefore,pillarless mining was experimented. Using numerical modeling and comparative study of cases of similar mining condition,it was decided to employ a 6 m wide pillar,rather than the previous 38 m wide pillar.Support system for the gateroads was designed and implemented. During gateroad development,pillar failure conditions and entry deformation were monitored. Hydraulic fracturing method was employed to cut off the K3 sandstone along the entry rib so as to reduce the abutment pressure induced during retreat mining. Support reinforcement method combining grouting and advanced reinforcement methods was proposed to insure stable gateroad ahead of mining. Methane drainage and nitrogen injection were implemented to eliminate hazards associated with mine fire and spontaneous combustion. Since the development of gateroad has just completed,and retreat mining has not begun,the effectiveness of the proposed methods is unknown at this point. However,monitoring will continue until after mining.The results will be published in a separate paper.
Determination of volumetric changes at an underground stone mine： a photogrammetry case study 免费阅读 下载全文 Photogrammetry,as a tool for monitoring underground mine deformation,is an alternative to traditional point measurement devices,and may be capable of accurate measurements in situations where technologies such as laser scanning are unsuited,undesired,or cost-prohibitive. An underground limestone mine in Ohio is used as a test case for monitoring of structurally unstable pillars. Seven pillars were photographed over in a 63 day period,punctuated by four visits. Using photogrammetry,point clouds of the mine geometry were obtained and triangulation surfaces were generated to determine volumes of change over time. Pillar spalling in the range of 0.29–4.03 m~3 of rock on individual rib faces was detected.Isolated incidents of rock expansion prior to failure,and the isolated failure of a weak shale band were also observed. Much of the pillars remained unchanged during the monitoring period,which is indicative of proper alignment in the triangulated surfaces. The photographs of some ribs were of either too poor quality or had insufficient overlap,and were not included. However,photogrammetry was successfully applied to multiple ribs in quantifying the pillar geometry change over time.
Potential of acoustic emissions from three point bending tests as rock failure precursors 免费阅读 下载全文 Development of failure in brittle materials is associated with microcracks,which release energy in the form of elastic waves called acoustic emissions. This paper presents results from acoustic emission measurements obtained during three point bending tests on Nestos marble under laboratory conditions.Acoustic emission activity was monitored using piezoelectric acoustic emission sensors,and the potential for accurate prediction of rock damage based on acoustic emission data was investigated. Damage localization was determined based on acoustic emissions generated from the critically stressed region as scattered events at stresses below and close to the strength of the material.
Development and implementation of spin to stall resin at Anglo Americans Australian underground coal operations 免费阅读 下载全文 Longwall mining is by far the most common method of underground coal extraction in Australia. The industry trends and expectations are placing increasing emphasis on the reliability and productivity of these operations. The longwalls are becoming wider and longer while retreat rates are continuously increasing due to significant improvements achieved in longwall equipment reliability and automation.This increased longwall productivity is placing significant emphasis on the reliability of longwall panel development. Although there have been significant improvements in the reliability of continuous miners and hydraulic drill rigs,the traditional resin encapsulated bolt installation is still the principal method used in all major coal-producing countries around the world. Anglo American realised an opportunity existed to introduce an alternative roof bolt installation technique called ‘‘spin to stall" in Australia.Spin to stall was first introduced in Anglo American Coal in South Africa where it has been successfully used for over a decade,though implementation of South African spin to stall resin in Australia has proven to be near impossible due to a significant difference in geotechnical conditions,mining method,and,subsequently,roof bolting equipment. Therefore,a new spin to stall development project was initiated between Anglo American Coal and Jennmar Australia(SPIN2STALLò). This paper summarises the journey of this project,the results,and the successful implementation of spin to stall achieved at Grasstree Mine.
A combined 2D and 3D numerical modeling approach to provide adequate roof support in complex 3D excavations 免费阅读 下载全文 Traditional methods for assessing effective roof support can be difficult to apply to complex three-dimensional excavations. Through worked examples,the approach of combined two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical modeling has been shown to be successful in understanding mechanisms of rock failure for unique excavation geometries and geotechnical properties and,in turn,provides adequate roof support recommendations for complex three-dimensional excavations in Australian coal mines. An interactive approach of monitoring and model review during the excavation process is an important part of model support recommendations to ensure rock failure and deformation in the model are representative of actual conditions,to provide effective and practical controls.
Analytical solutions of hard roofs bending moment, deflection and energy under the front abutment pressure before periodic weighting 免费阅读 下载全文 The distribution of front abutment pressure is closely related to the force,deformation and energy distribution of hard roof before periodic weighting. So it is necessary to carry out research on the relationship between them. According to front abutment pressure distribution feature,using the location of peak front abutment pressure as the dividing point,coal seam is divided into two parts along the direction of mining: the yield zone that is the area between the faceline and the point where the maximum front abutment pressure occurs,and the elastic zone that is the part before the point of peak front abutment pressure. The proposed mechanical model of unit width hard roof at the panel center before periodic weighting consists of five parts including the yield zone. All parameters of the deflection equations for each of the five parts that satisfy the continuity conditions and natural boundary conditions are obtained by using the Matlab software. The continuous curves of front abutment pressure,deflection,bending moment and bending strain energy density distribution of hard roof are obtained by iterative approximation method,and the relationship between the yield zone width and the above curves are analyzed in detailed.
Guide for Authors 免费阅读 下载全文