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  • Effects of two transition metal sulfate salts on secondary organic aerosol formation in toluene/NOx photooxidation
  • Aerosol phase reactions play a very important role on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, and metal-containing aerosols are important components in the atmosphere. In this study, we tested the effects of two transition metal sulfate salts, manganese sulfate (MnSO4) and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), on the photochemical reactions of a toluene/NOx photooxidation system in a 2 m3 smog chamber. By comparing photochemical reaction products of experiments with and without transition metal sulfate seed aerosols, we evaluated the effects of transition metal sulfate seed aerosols on toluene consumption, NOx conversion and the formation of ozone and SOA. MnSO4 and ZnSO4 seed aerosols were found to have similar effects on photochemical reactions, both enhance the SOA production, while showing negligible effects on the gas phase compounds. These observations are consistent when varying metal sulfate aerosol concentrations. This is attributed to the catalytic effects of MnSO4 and ZnSO4 seed aerosols which may enhance the formation of condensable semivolatile compounds. Their subsequent partitioning into the aerosol phase leads to the observed SOA formation enhancement.
  • Gridded usage inventories of chlordane in China
  • Abstract Chlordane (1,2,4,5,6,7,8,8-octachloro-3a,4,7, 7a-tetra-hydro-4,7-methanoindane) is one of organochlor- ine pesticides (OCPs) which has been listed as one of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to be reduced and finally eliminated in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, because of its great persistence, toxicity, bio-accumulation and long-range transport potential. It is critical to create a national chlordane usage inventories for China to compile chlordane emission inventories, which is helpful for carrying out risk assessments and other researches related to chlordane in China. The annual data of chlordane usage was calculated and modified in accordance with the reported annual production of chlordane which was caculated on the basis of the termite distribution, the data of chlordane usage rate and the annual new construction area (NCA). With the help of Geographic Information System, the usage data of this NCA were allocated to a grid system then, with a 1/4° longitude by 1/6°latitude resolution and a size for each grid cell of approximately 25 km by 25 km. Between 1988 and 2008, the total usage of chlordane in China was 2745 t, accounting for approximately 80% of the production in the same period. Zhejiang Province was the largest consumer of chlordane in China, whose usage adds up to 980 t, greatly exceeding other provinces/regions, followed by Jiangsu Province (534 t) and Sichuan Province (428 t). The region with the least usage of chlordane was Beijing. Provinces of Guizhou, Henan and Hebei did not use any chlordane, even though termites had occurred in these provinces. Gridded usage inventories showed that the intensive use of chlordane was concentrated in the southeast part of China, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta in particular. The satisfaction of the inventories was supported by the consistence between the estimated data of annual usage and the reported annual production of chlordane, and by the ...
  • Effects of organic acids on Cd adsorption and desorption by two anthropic soils
  • The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of malic, tartaric, oxalic, and citric acid on the adsorption and desorption characteristics of Cd by two typical anthropic soils (lou soil and irrigation-silted soil) in North-west China. Cadmium adsorption and desorption were studied under a range of temperatures (25℃, 30℃, 35℃, 40℃), organic acid concentrations (0.5-5.0 mmol·L-1), and pH values (2-8). The results showed that the Cd adsorption capacity of the lou soil was significantly greater than that of the irrigation-silted soil. Generally, Cd adsorption increased as the temperature increased. In the presence of NaNO3, the adsorption of Cd was endothermic with △H values of 31.365 kJ·mo1-1 for lou soil and 28.278 kJ·mol-1 for irrigation-silted soil. The endothermic reaction indicated that H bonds were the main driving force for Cd adsorption in both soils. However, different concentrations of organic acids showed various influences on the two soils. In the presence of citric acid, chemical adsorption and van der Waals interactions were the main driving forces for Cd adsorption rather than H bonds. Although the types of organic acids and soil properties were different, the effects of the organic acids on the adsorption and desorption of Cd were similar in the two soils. The adsorption percentage of Cd generally decreased as organic acid concentrations increased. In contrast, the adsorption percentage increased as the pH of the initial solution increased. The exception was that adsorption percentage of Cd increased slightly as oxalic acid concentrations increased. In contrast, the desorption percentage of Cd increased with increasing concentrations of organic acids but decreased as the initial solution pH increased.
  • A new procedure combining GC-MS with accelerated solvent extraction for the analysis of phthalic acid esters in contaminated soils
  • An optimized procedure based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is developed for the analysis of six phthalic acid esters (PAEs), which are priority soil pollutants nominated by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Quantification of PAEs in soil employs ultrasonic extraction (UE) (USEPA 3550) and ASE (USEPA 3545), followed by clean up procedures involving three different chromatography columns and two combined elution methods. GC-MS conditions under selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode are described and quality assurance and quality control (QA/ QC) criteria with high accuracy and sensitivity for target analytes were achieved. Method reliability is assured with the use of an isotopically labeled PAE, di-n-butyl phthalate-d4 (DnBP-D4), as a surrogate, and benzyl benzoate (BB) as an internal standard, and with the analysis of certified reference materials (CRM). QA/QC for the developed procedure was tested in four PAE-spiked soils and one PAE-contaminated soil. The four spiked soils were originated from typical Chinese agricultural fields and the contaminated soil was obtained from an electronic waste dismantling area. Instrument detection limits (IDLs) for the six PAEs ranged 0.10-0.31 μg·L-1 and method detection limits (MDLs) of the four spiked soils varied from a range of 20-70 μg· kg -1 to a range of 90-290 μg· kg-1. Lineal-iVy of response between 20 μg· L-1 and 2mg.L~ was also established and the correlation coefficients (R) were a11〉0.998. Spiked soil matrix showed relative recovery rates between 75 and 120% for the six target compounds and about 93% for the surrogate substance. The developed procedure is anticipated to be highly applicable for field surveys of soil PAE pollution in China.
  • Effects of hydraulic retention time on nitrification activities and population dynamics of a conventional activated sludge system
  • The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the nitrification activities and population dynamics of a conventional activated sludge system fed with synthetic inorganic wastewater were investigated over a period of 260 days. When the HRT was gradually decreased from 30 to 5 h, the specific ammonium-oxidizing rates (SAOR) varied between 0.32 and 0.45kg NH4+-N (kg mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS)·d)-1, and the specific nitrate-forming rates (SNFR) increased from 0.11 to 0.50kg NO3-N (kg MLSS·d)1l, showing that the decrease in HRT led to a significant increase in the nitrite oxidation activity. According to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis results, the proportion of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOBs) among the total bacteria decreased from 33% to 15% with the decrease in HRT, whereas the fraction of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOBs), particularly the fast-growing Nitrobacter sp., increased significantly (from 4% to 15% for NOBs and from 1.5% to 10.6% for Nitrobacter sp.) with the decrease in HRT, which was in accordance with the changes in SNFR. A short HRT favored the relative growth of NOBs, particularly the fast-growing Nitrobacter sp., in the conventional activated sludge system.
  • Detecting Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia by coagulation concentration and real-time PCR quantification
  • Rapid and sensitive pathogen detection methods are essential for the effective functioning of the water treatment industry, yet for many pathogens, effective detection and removal methods are still lacking. Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts are two of the most common waterborne pathogens currently infecting the water supply. In this study, a new method was developed for the detection of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts. The method includes multi-steps as coagulation concentration of (oo)cysts in water, the dissolution of the resulting flocs into a small volume using acid, filtration of the (oo)cysts solution, and DNA extraction, purification, and examination using real-time PCR. The method was tested using spiked tap water and reservoir water as references, and the mean recovery ranged from 19.6% to 97.6% for oocysts, and from 51.4% to 98.7% for cysts. The method is economical and convenient, and is especially suitable for relatively high turbidity surface water.
  • Particle size distributions, PM2.5 concentrations and water- soluble inorganic ions in different public indoor environments: a case study in Jinan, China
  • In this study, we collected particles with aerodynamic diameter≤2.5μm (PM2.5) from three different public indoor places (a supermarket, a commercial office, and a university dining hall) in Jinan, a medium-sized city located in northern China. Water- soluble inorganic ions of PM2.5 and particle size distributions were also measured. Both indoor and outdoor PM2.5 levels (102.3-143.8 μg·m- 3 and 160.2-301.3 μg·m-3, respectively) were substantially higher than the value recommended by the World Health Organization (25 I.μg·m-3), and outdoor sources were found to be the major contributors to indoor pollutants. Diurnal particle number size distributions were different, while the maximum volume concentrations all appeared to be approximately 300nm in the three indoor locations. Concentrations of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 were shown to exhibit the same variation trends for the supermarket and dining hall. For the office, PM2.5 concentrations during nighttime were observed to decrease sharply. Among others, SO4^2-, NH4+ and NO3- were found to be the dominant water-soluble ions of both indoor and outdoor particles. Concentrations of NO3- in the supermarket and office during the daytime were observed to decrease sharply, which might be attributed to the fact that the indoor temperature was much higher than the outdoor temperature. In addition, domestic activities such as cleaning, water usage, cooking, and smoking also played roles in degraded indoor air quality. However, the results obtained here might be negatively impacted by the small number of samples and short sampling durations.
  • Emission factors of gaseous carbonaceous species from residential combustion of coal and crop residue briquettes
  • Experiments were performed to measure the emission factors (EFs) of gaseous carbonaceous species, such as CO2, CO, CH4, and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), from the combustion of five types of coal of varying organic maturity and two types of biomass briquettes under residential burning conditions. Samples were collected in stainless steel canisters and 2,4- dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges and were analyzed by GC FID/MS and HPLC, respectively. The EFs from crop residue briquette burning were generally higher than those from coals, with the exception of CO2. The dominant NMVOC species identified in coal smoke were carbonyls (41.7%), followed by C2 unsaturated hydrocarbons (29.1%) and aromatics (12.1%), while C2 unsaturated hydrocarbons were the dominant species (68.9%) emitted from the combustion of crop residue briquettes, followed by aromatics (14.4%). A comparison of burning normal crop residues in stoves and the open field indicated that briquettes emitted a larger proportion of ethene and acetylene. Both combustion efficiency and coal organic maturity had a significant impact on NMVOC EFs from burning coal: NMVOC emissions increased with increasing coal organic maturity but decreased as the combustion efficiency improved. Emissions from the combustion of crop residue briquettes from stoves occurred mainly during the smoldering process, with low combustion efficiency. Therefore, an improved stove design to allow higher combustion efficiency would be beneficial for reducing emissions of carbonaceous air pollutants.
  • Susceptibility of male and female Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to 2,4,6-trichlorophenol-induced micronuclei in peripheral erythrocytes
  • 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) is a wide- spread probable human carcinogen and has been proven to have genotoxicity in in vitro assays. However, little genotoxicity information and no micronuclei induction data for 2,4,6-TCP is available from in vivo tests, especially for sex-specific differences. Following a preliminary test, a piscine peripheral erythrocyte micro- nucleus assay was conducted on medaka (Oryzias latipes) after a 28-day exposure to 2,4,6-TCE In the present study, the mean micronuclei (MNC) frequencies of all of the groups increased in a dose-dependent manner, which indicated the potential genotoxicity of 2,4,6-TCE More- over, males were found to be more susceptible compared with females after a 28-day exposure to 2,4,6-TCP in all of the dosed groups above 10 ~tg-L-1. This is the first report on the potential of micronuclei induction and a sex-susceptible effect in the peripheral erythrocytes of mature fish after 2,4,6-TCP in vivo exposure.
  • Genotype variations in accumulation of cadmium and lead in celery (Apium graveolens L.) and screening for low Cd and Pb accumulative cultivars
  • To help reduce risks of heavy metal pollution, two pot experiments were conducted to investigate the variations, transfer potential, and stability of Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) accumulations in celery (Apium graveolens L.) and to screen for low Cd and Pb accumulative cultivars. The maximum differences in shoot Cd concentration were 4.7-fold under low-Cd exposure and 3.3-fold under high-Cd exposure. These genotype variations in Cd accumulation are sufficiently large to help reduce Cd contamination risk in soil by using the Low-Cd-Accumulative genotypes. Cd accumulation of the Low-Cd-Accumulative genotypes is significantly positive correlated with Pb accumulation. Evidence obtained proves that Cd and Pb accumulations in celery are stable and genotype-dependent at the cultivar level. The presence of high-Pb contamination in soil promoted Cd accumulation in shoots of celery. Celery is considered a species with high risks in Cd pollution and low risks in Pb pollution. Among the tested cultivars, cv. Shuanggang- kangbing (SGKB) had the lowest shoot Cd and Pb accumulating abilities, and thus is the most important material for breeding of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) to minimize Cd and Pb accumulations in celery.
  • Clustering economic sectors in China on a life cycle basis to achieve environmental sustainability
  • To improve material efficiency, industrial structure optimization becomes a focal point in Chinese industrial and environmental policies. It is crucial to cluster economic sectors and determine their priority for industrial and environmental policy implementation. Integrating a set of criteria, a hybrid input-output model and the hierarchical cluster analysis, this study clusters China's economic sectors and determines their priority on a life cycle basis. China's economic sectors are clustered into three clusters. Industrial structure changes (industrial policy) should encourage the development of sectors in cluster 1 and limit the development of sectors in cluster 2. Technology development and materials recycling (two environmental policies) should mainly focus on sectors in clusters 1 and 2. Future industrial policies in China should limit the development of two sectors named Manufacture of metal products and Extraction of petroleum and natural gas. Instead of limiting some industries by command-and- control, the best policy option is to remedy environmental standards and law enforcement. Enterprises belonging to the identified key sectors from the viewpoint of direct production impacts should be concerned to achieve enterprise sustainability. To achieve sustainable production chains, the identified key sectors from the viewpoint of accumulative production impacts should be concerned. For sustainable consumption, the identified key sectors from the viewpoint of consumption impacts should be concerned to transform consumption styles. Most of environmental pressure can be alleviated not only by technical improvements and material recycling, but also by the development of economic sectors in cluster 1.
  • Evaluation of SWAT sub-daily runoff estimation at small agricultural watershed in Korea
  • A study was undertaken for the prediction of runoff flow from 0.8 ha field-sized agricultural watershed in South Korea using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) sub-daily. The SWAT model with sub-daily configuration predicted flow from the watershed within the range of acceptable accuracy. The SWAT sub-daily simulations were carried out for a total of 18 rainfall events, 9 each for calibration and validation. Overall trend and extent of matching simulated flow for the rainfall events in 2007-2008 with measured data during the calibration process were coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.88 and Nash and Sutcliffe Efficiency (ENs) value of 0.88. For validation, R2 and ENs values were 0.9 and 0.84, respectively. Whereas R2 and ENs values for simulation results using daily rainfall data were 0.79 and -0.01, respectively, that were observed to be out of acceptable limits for the model simulation. The importance of higher time resolution (hourly) precipitation records for flow simulation were evaluated by comparing Ra and ENs with 15 min, 2 h, 6 h and 12 h precipitation data, which resulted in lower statistics with increases in time resolution of precipitation data. The SWAT sub-daily sensitivity analysis was performed with the consideration of hydraulic parameter and was found as in the rank order of CN2 (curve number), ESCO (soil evaporation compensation factor), GW_DELAY (ground water delay time), ALPHA BF (base flow alpha factor), GWQMN (a threshold-minimum depth of water in the shallow aquifer required for return flow to occur), REVAPMN (minimum depth of water in shallow aquifer for re-evaporation to occur), LAT TIME (lateral flow travel time) respectively. These sensit]-ve parameters were evaluated at 10% higher and lower values of the parameters, corresponding to 70.5% higher and 23.2% lower in simulated flow out from the SWAT model. From the results obtained in this study, hourly precipitation record for SWAT sub-daily with Green-Ampt infiltration met...
  • Sustainable design of sanitation system based on material and value flow analysis for urban slum in Indonesia
  • Material flow analysis (MFA) and value flow analysis (VFA) were applied to the sanitation system in an urban slum in Indonesia. Based on the results of the MFA and VFA, garbage and excreta disposal costs were evaluated to be 0.7% and 1.1%, respectively, of per capita income. Such value flows seem reasonable in light of the recognized affordability to pay (ATP) standard. However, current excreta disposal methods create negative impacts on downstream populations. Because such disadvantages do not go back to disposers, but passed to downstream, the current value flow structure does not motivate individual toilet users to install treatment facility. Based on current material and value flow structures, a resource recycling sanitation system scenario was examined. Based on VFA, an affordable initial cost for such a system was calculated; this was found to be comparable in price to a cheaper composting toilet that is currently available in the market.
  • Suspended solid abatement in a conical fluidized bed flocculator
  • With the random movement of silica gel beads in a conical fluidized bed, micro-vortices resulting from the fluidization promoted the collision and aggregation of suspended fine kaolin powders. The abatement efficiencies of the suspended fine solids under several hydrodynamic conditions were studied, and a suitable control strategy for operating the conical fluidized bed flocculators was identified. The suspended solids abatement efficiency was found to increase with increasing Camp Number and flocculation time (T), but decreased with the increase of velocity gradient (G) within the range studied in this research (165.1-189.6s-1). The abatement efficiencies were all more than 60% at the range of G = 165-180 s 1 and T = 15-33 s at an initial kaolin solid concentration of 150mg·L-1, polymer aluminum chloride dosage of 60 mg· L -1 and sedimentation time of 20 min. However, the formation of flocs was influenced by the liquid back- mixing. Excessive backmixing caused the breakup of ftocs and resulted in difficulty for the fine powders to aggregate and sediment to the reactor bottom. The results of the calculated fractal dimension and measured free sedimenta- tion velocity of flocs obtained at different runs showed similar flocs properties, and indicated an easy control strategy for sedimentation of the flocs.
  • Practical consideration for design and optimization of the step feed process
  • Based on the anoxic/oxic (A/O) step feed process, a modified University of Cape Town (UCT) step feed process was developed by adding an anaerobic zone and adjusting sludge retum pipeline. Performance evaluation of these two types of processes was investigated by optimizing operational parameters, such as the anaerobic/ anoxic/oxic volumes, internal recycle ratios, and sludge retention times, for removal of chemical oxygen demanding (COD), nitrogen, and phosphorus. Results showed high removal efficiencies of COD of (85.0±1.7)%, ammonium of (99.7±0.2)%, total nitrogen (TN) of (85.5±l.7)%, phosphorus of (95.1±3.3)%, as well as excellent sludge settleability with average sludge volume index of (83.7±9.5) L·mg-1 in the modified UCT process. Moreover, (61.5±6.0)% of influent COD was efficiently involved in denitrification or phosphorus release process. As much as 35.3% of TN was eliminated through simultaneous nitrification and denitrification process in aerobic zones. In addition, the presence of denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DNPAOs), account- ing for approximately 39.2% of PAOs, was also greatly beneficial to the nitrogen Consequently, the modified and phosphorus removal. UCT step feed process was more attractive for the wastewater treatment plant, because it had extremely competitive advantages such as higher nutrient removal efficiencies, lower energy and dosages consumption, excellent settling sludge and operational assurance.
  • Fermentative hydrogen production from beet sugar factory wastewater treatment in a continuous stirred tank reactor using anaerobic mixed consortia
  • A low pH, ethanol-type fermentation process was evaluated for wastewater treatment and bio-hydrogen production from acidic beet sugar factory wastewater in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with an effective volume of 9.6 L by anaerobic mixed cultures in this present study. After inoculating with aerobic activated sludge and operating at organic loading rate (OLR) of 12 kgCOD·m-3·d-1, HRT of 8h, and temperature of 35℃ for 28 days, the CSTR achieved stable ethanol-type fermentation. When OLR was further increased to 18 kgCOD·m-3·d-1, on the 53rd day, ethanol-type fermentation dominant microflora was enhanced. The liquid fermentation products, including volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ethanol, stabilized at 1493mg·L-1 in the bioreactor. Effluent pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), and alkalinity ranged at 4.1-4.5, -250-(-290) mV, and 230-260mgCaCO3·L-1. The specific hydrogen production rate of anaerobic activated sludge was 0.1 L'gMLVSS-1· d-1 and the COD removal efficiency was 45%. The experimental results showed that the CSTR system had good operation stability and microbial activity, which led to high substrate conversion rate and hydrogen production ability.
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  • Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review, or thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved bv all co-authors, if anv,
  • Effects of two transition metal sulfate salts on secondary organic aerosol formation in toluene/NOx photooxidation(Biwu CHU[1] Jiming HAO[1] Junhua LI[1] Hideto TAKEKAWA[2] Kun WANG[1] Jingkun JIANG[1])
    Gridded usage inventories of chlordane in China(Qiang WANG[1] Lijuan ZHAO[1] Xuekun FANG[1] Jianhua XU[1] Yifan LI[2] Yehong SHI[1] Jianxin HU[1])
    Effects of organic acids on Cd adsorption and desorption by two anthropic soils(Jingui WANG[1,2] Jialong LV[1,2] Yaolong FU[1,2])
    A new procedure combining GC-MS with accelerated solvent extraction for the analysis of phthalic acid esters in contaminated soils(Tingting MA[1,2] Ying TENG[1,2] Peter CHRISTIE[3] Yongming LUO[1,2] Yongshan CHEN[4] Mao YE[2,5])
    Effects of hydraulic retention time on nitrification activities and population dynamics of a conventional activated sludge system(Hongyan LI[1] Yu ZHANG[1] Min YANG[1] Yoichi KAMAGATA[2])
    Detecting Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia by coagulation concentration and real-time PCR quantification(Huining ZHANG Xiaohu Zhang Shuting ZHANG Bo WEI Qipei JIANG Xin YU)
    Particle size distributions, PM2.5 concentrations and water- soluble inorganic ions in different public indoor environments: a case study in Jinan, China(Can DONG[1] Lingxiao YANG[1,2] Chao YAN[1] Qi YUAN[1] Yangchun YU[1] Wenxing WANG[1,3])
    Emission factors of gaseous carbonaceous species from residential combustion of coal and crop residue briquettes(Qin WANG[1] Chunmei GENG[2] Sihua LU[1] Wentai CHEN[1] Min SHAO[1])
    [Environmental Toxicity]
    Susceptibility of male and female Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to 2,4,6-trichlorophenol-induced micronuclei in peripheral erythrocytes(Nannan LIU Mei MA Yiping XU Jinmiao ZHA Kaifeng RAO Zijian WANG)
    Genotype variations in accumulation of cadmium and lead in celery (Apium graveolens L.) and screening for low Cd and Pb accumulative cultivars(Kun ZHANG[1] Jianbing WANG[1] Zhongyi YANG[1] Guorong XIN[1] Jiangang YUAN[1] Junliang XIN[1] Charlie HUANG[2])
    [Environmental Policy and Management]
    Clustering economic sectors in China on a life cycle basis to achieve environmental sustainability(Sai LIANG[1] Tianzhu ZHANG[1] Xiaoping JIA[2])
    Evaluation of SWAT sub-daily runoff estimation at small agricultural watershed in Korea(Ganga Ram Maharjan[1] Youn Shik Park[2] Nam Won Kim[3] Dong Seok Shin[4] Jae Wan Choi[4] Geun Woo Hyun[5] Ji-Hong Jeon[6] Yong Sik Ok[7] Kyoung Jae Lim[1])
    Sustainable design of sanitation system based on material and value flow analysis for urban slum in Indonesia(Ken USHIJIMA[1] Mitsuteru IRIE[2] Neni SINTAWARDANI[3] Jovita TRIASTUTI[3] Umi HAMIDAH[3] Tadaharu ISHIKAWA[4] Naoyuki FUNAMIZU[1])
    [Environmental Pollution Control]
    Suspended solid abatement in a conical fluidized bed flocculator(Dandan ZHOU[1] Shuangshi DONG[1] Keyu LI[2] Huizhong JIANG[1] Dandan SHANG[1])
    Practical consideration for design and optimization of the step feed process(Shijian GE Yongzhen PENG Congcong LU Shuying WANG)
    Fermentative hydrogen production from beet sugar factory wastewater treatment in a continuous stirred tank reactor using anaerobic mixed consortia(Gefu ZHU[1] Chaoxiang LIU[1] Jianzheng LI[2] Nanqi REN[2] Lin LIU[1] Xu HUANG[1])

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